Here are the answers to your
1. I understand that you have offered
ṣalāh led by an imām who, you believe, had not performed wuḍū properly. Please
note that it is not your responsibility to check that. It is upon the imām to
perform wuḍū properly. You can at best politely discuss this with him and bring
your concern to his notice. His failure in this regard does not harm your ṣalāh.
2. God does not hold us into account for
involuntary thoughts. If, for example, I think of something that takes away my
mind and I lose my concentration that is not my fault. It will only be my fault
if I just knowingly give in to such thoughts and continue daydreaming or solving
all my problems and doing arithmetic. As long as you are aware of the fact that
thoughts disturb your prayers and that you need to avoid indulging in them and
you continue going back to what you are doing, nothing more is required. I
suggest you can learn the meaning of the words you utter in the prayer and the
verses and sūrahs you recite. When we say something we know the meaning of we
can keep our concentration and if we start chanting something we do not know
then we can lose concentration easily.
3. We are obliged to try not to involve
in bad things. We can also choose our circle of friends. I suggest trying to
live in a good company. It is very hard to live up to religious and moral
standards in an environment unfriendly to the religion. However, extenuating
circumstances are always considered by God and we should repent and seek His
forgiveness and ask Him to grant us a good environment. May God bless you and
increase your taqwā. Remembering God in solicitude is a great virtue.
4. I believe a prayer to God does not
need any language or eloquent expression or a set method. It is the voice of
heart which even a child can try and a dumb can express. It is the force of
trust in God and our faith in Him. I suggest you to put your prayers before the
Lord God who knows our wishes more than we do and keep faith in Him. He will
definitely hear your cries and grant you your wishes.