(A. 1) According to the Sunnah established by the Prophet
(sws), offering any kind of Salah or Sajdah (prostration) is prohibited at the
times of sunrise and sunset only since it is at these times that certain
polytheists worship the sun. Other forms of worship are not prohibited at these
(A. 2) In religious parlance, combining the Zuhr and ‘Asr
prayers and Maghrib and ‘Ishā prayers, is called ‘Jam‘a bayn al-salātayn’. It is
only allowed during travel. In no other circumstances is it allowed.
(A. 3) Yes they can be uttered so since the Prophet (sws)
has positively bound us at five specific places to say certain Adhkār
(utterances to remember Allah) in Arabic, and the Ad‘iyā are not one of them.
They are: (i) Saying Allāhu Akbar at the beginning of the Salāh and at every
point of ascent or descent during the course of the Salāh, (ii) Reciting Sūrah
Fātihah at the beginning of each Rak‘at, (iii) Reciting some portion of the
Qur’ān after Sūrah Fātihah and (iv) saying Sam‘i Allāhu Liman Hamidah and
Rabbana Laka al-Hand when one rises to stand up after doing Ruk‘ū, (v) saying
Al-salāmu ‘alaykum wa rahmatullāh to signal the end of the Salāh.
(A. 4) Though there is no ruling in the Sharī‘ah about
the situation you have stated, common sense dictates that when standing before
the Almighty in Salāh, this should be avoided. Though both Salāh and saying
certain words at the time of sneezing are forms of remembering Allah, one feels
that since in doing the former one is already involved in remembering Allah in a
formal way, other forms of remembering Allah should be left to circumstances
when one is not praying.