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Analysis of Sūrah Rahmān
Qur'anic Exegesis
Amin Ahsan Islahi
(Tr. by:Dr. Shehzad Saleem)

The coherence in this Sūrah is very evident. The Sūrah begins with the declaration that the Qur’ān is a manifestation of the Graciousness of the Almighty. The Almighty created man and specially blessed him with the power of speech and comprehension. These grand favours and abilities entail that man should be taught and educated with the the most grand heavenly work---the Qur’ān---and not through torment and punishment. It is the extreme misfortune of the disbelievers who instead of seeking guidance from it are demanding to see the promised doom.

After this, the various signs in the heavens and in the earth and in the the universal norms of human intellect are pointed at and two of the Almighty’s creations---men and jinns---are urged to reflect on them and asked how many such signs would they deny.

First and foremost are mentioned those signs and manifestations which point to the fact that the Almighty greatly cherishes justice and does not approve anything contrary to justice and equity at all in the world He has created. These are followed by those which indicate that the tremendous and extremely vast system of sustenance which the Almighty has established on the earth entails that man shall one day be held accountable for the profound blessings he has been given. Those who deserve to be rewarded shall be rewaded and those who deserve to be punished shall be punished.

A reference is then made to the fact that it is the Almighty who has created men and jinns from clay and fire and He can easily create them a second time. There is no difficulty for Him in this regard. This whole Universe is under His control; He is the Lord of the East and the West. Whatever rises, rises with His permission and whatever sets, sets with His permission.

After this, it is asserted that the conflicting elements in the Universe are in harmony with one another to fulfil a greater purpose which is over and above their creation. This bears witness to the fact that a sovereign will is dominant over these elements which creates harmony between them and uses them for the collective welfare of the universe. If this was not so, the universe would have been destroyed by a clash between its conflicting elements. That it is surviving is an ample testimony to the fact that a single supreme and omnipotent power controls it. An indication is then made that Allah alone is immortal and all the rest are mortal.

Next it is expressed that all except the Almighty are needy and He is the only one who fulfils their needs. The foolish who ask from others actually receive from Him as well. An affirmation is then made of the fact that the Day wherein accountability of deeds shall take place is certain to come and on that Day no one---men as well as jinns---would be able to run away from the Almighty’s grasp. On that Day, no evidence shall be needed to convict a criminal as his forehead shall bear witness to his sins. He shall then be grabbed by his forehead and feet and flung into Hell.

At the end, features and characteristics of the paradise which the muqarrabeen shall receive are dilineated, followed by the features and characteristics of the paradise which the Ashaab-ul-Yameen shall be blessed with.

(Translated from Islahi’s "Tadabbur-i-Qur’ān")   ---Shehzad Saleem

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