View Printable Version :: Email to a Friend
Surah al-Baqarah (196-203)
Qur'anic Exegesis
Javed Ahmad Ghamidi
(Tr. by:Dr. Shehzad Saleem)

وَأَتِمُّواْ الْحَجَّ وَالْعُمْرَةَ لِلّهِ فَإِنْ أُحْصِرْتُمْ فَمَا اسْتَيْسَرَ مِنَ الْهَدْيِ وَلاَ تَحْلِقُواْ رُؤُوسَكُمْ حَتَّى يَبْلُغَ الْهَدْيُ مَحِلَّهُ فَمَن كَانَ مِنكُم مَّرِيضاً أَوْ بِهِ أَذًى مِّن رَّأْسِهِ فَفِدْيَةٌ مِّن صِيَامٍ أَوْ صَدَقَةٍ أَوْ نُسُكٍ فَإِذَا أَمِنتُمْ فَمَن تَمَتَّعَ بِالْعُمْرَةِ إِلَى الْحَجِّ فَمَا اسْتَيْسَرَ مِنَ الْهَدْيِ فَمَن لَّمْ يَجِدْ فَصِيَامُ ثَلاثَةِ أَيَّامٍ فِي الْحَجِّ وَسَبْعَةٍ إِذَا رَجَعْتُمْ تِلْكَ عَشَرَةٌ كَامِلَةٌ ذَلِكَ لِمَن لَّمْ يَكُنْ أَهْلُهُ حَاضِرِي الْمَسْجِدِ الْحَرَامِ وَاتَّقُواْ اللّهَ وَاعْلَمُواْ أَنَّ اللّهَ شَدِيدُ الْعِقَابِ (١٩٦)

الْحَجُّ أَشْهُرٌ مَّعْلُومَاتٌ فَمَن فَرَضَ فِيهِنَّ الْحَجَّ فَلاَ رَفَثَ وَلاَ فُسُوقَ وَلاَ جِدَالَ فِي الْحَجِّ وَمَا تَفْعَلُواْ مِنْ خَيْرٍ يَعْلَمْهُ اللّهُ وَتَزَوَّدُواْ فَإِنَّ خَيْرَ الزَّادِ التَّقْوَى وَاتَّقُونِ يَا أُوْلِي الأَلْبَابِ (١٩٧)

لَيْسَ عَلَيْكُمْ جُنَاحٌ أَن تَبْتَغُواْ فَضْلاً مِّن رَّبِّكُمْ فَإِذَا أَفَضْتُم مِّنْ عَرَفَاتٍ فَاذْكُرُواْ اللّهَ عِندَ الْمَشْعَرِ الْحَرَامِ وَاذْكُرُوهُ كَمَا هَدَاكُمْ وَإِن كُنتُم مِّن قَبْلِهِ لَمِنَ الضَّآلِّينَ (١٩٨)

ثُمَّ أَفِيضُواْ مِنْ حَيْثُ أَفَاضَ النَّاسُ وَاسْتَغْفِرُواْ اللّهَ إِنَّ اللّهَ غَفُورٌ رَّحِيمٌ (١٩٩)

فَإِذَا قَضَيْتُم مَّنَاسِكَكُمْ فَاذْكُرُواْ اللّهَ كَذِكْرِكُمْ آبَاءكُمْ أَوْ أَشَدَّ ذِكْرًا فَمِنَ النَّاسِ مَن يَقُولُ رَبَّنَا آتِنَا فِي الدُّنْيَا وَمَا لَهُ فِي الآخِرَةِ مِنْ خَلاَقٍ  وِمِنْهُم مَّن يَقُولُ رَبَّنَا آتِنَا فِي الدُّنْيَا حَسَنَةً وَفِي الآخِرَةِ حَسَنَةً وَقِنَا عَذَابَ النَّارِ  أُولَـئِكَ لَهُمْ نَصِيبٌ مِّمَّا كَسَبُواْ وَاللّهُ سَرِيعُ الْحِسَابِ (٢٠٠-٢٠٢)

وَاذْكُرُواْ اللّهَ فِي أَيَّامٍ مَّعْدُودَاتٍ فَمَن تَعَجَّلَ فِي يَوْمَيْنِ فَلاَ إِثْمَ عَلَيْهِ وَمَن تَأَخَّرَ فَلا إِثْمَ عَلَيْهِ لِمَنِ اتَّقَى وَاتَّقُواْ اللّهَ وَاعْلَمُوا أَنَّكُمْ إِلَيْهِ تُحْشَرُونَ (٢٠٣)

 And [if the way to] Hajj and ‘Umrah1 [is opened for you, then] complete [them with all their rites] for Allah2 only. However, if you are besieged in the way3 sacrifice the cattle that are available to you4 and do not shave your heads until the sacrificial offerings have reached their destination5. But if any of you is ill or suffers from an ailment of the head [and is forced to shave his head before sacrificing an animal], he must atone for this either by fasting or by almsgiving or by offering an animal as sacrifice6. So when circumstances become peaceful anyone among you who combines the [journey for] ‘Umrah with Hajj, he must offer animal sacrifice as he can afford; but if this is not available to him, he should fast three days during Hajj and seven when he has returned; these are ten days in all. [This concession to combine Hajj and ‘Umrah in this manner] is only for those whose houses are not near the Holy Mosque7. [Abide by this] and have fear of God and you should know that God is stern in retribution. (196)

The days of Hajj8 are known9. So anyone who intends to offer it10 [by wearing the Ihram] should not indulge in lustful activities and refrain from being disobedient to the Almighty and abstain from altercation11. And [remember that] whatever good you do, the Almighty is aware of it. And [in the journey of Hajj] take along with you the provision [of piety] because the best provision is piety12. And O men of intellect! Keep fearing Me. (197)

[In this journey of Hajj], it shall be no offence for you to seek the bounty of your Lord13 [but remember that Muzdalifah is no place of amusement and trading; so] when you come from ‘Arafat remember God near the sacred monument and remember Him in the way He has guided you14. And before this, you were undoubtedly in error15. (198)

Then [O People of the Quraysh! this is also necessary that] you return from the place from where other people return16 and seek the forgiveness of God. God is indeed Forgiving and Ever-Merciful. (199)

[And this also is necessary that] after this when you have fulfilled the rites of Hajj, remember God as you remember your forefathers; in fact even more17. [This is the time of asking from God] but there are some who [at this instance also] say: ‘Lord, give us in this world’18 and [then the result of this is that] they shall have no share in the world to come. But there are others who say: ‘Lord, give us what is good both in this world and in the world to come, and save us from the torment of the Fire’19. It is these who will receive a share of what they earned and swift is God in taking account20. (200-202)

Remember God in these few appointed21 days [at Mina]. He who is in haste and departs on the second day incurs no sin, nor does he who stays on longer22, if he truly fears God23. And have fear of God, and be aware that [one day] you shall all be gathered before Him24. (203)



(Translated by Shehzad Saleem from Ghamidi’s ‘Al-Bayan’)











1. The way Hajj and ‘Umrah are mentioned here shows that they were not alien to the Arabs. It is evident from their history that they were fully aware of the rites and etiquette of these worship rituals. Although they had introduced certain innovations in them, they fully knew what Hajj and ‘Umrah were. For this very reason, the Qur’an has not mentioned any details of these worship rituals. It has only eliminated these innovations and explained certain necessary issues about their rites.

2. The Qur’anic words used are: ‘وَأَتِمُّواْ الْحَجَّ وَالْعُمْرَةَ لِلّهِ’. The implication is that in this case no concession shall be given in observing the rites; they shall be observed as they are. The whole stress of this sentence is on the word ‘لِلّه’, implying that Hajj and ‘Umrah should be offered for God alone. This warning had to be sounded to the Arabs because Hajj and ‘Umrah had become more of a means of trade rather than worship rituals and they offered these rituals not merely for God, but their baseless deities were also included in this worship – deities whose statues they had mounted not only in the sacred mosque but also at various sites of  Hajj.

3. The succeeding words ‘فَإِذَا أَمِنتُمْ’ indicate that what is implied is that a person has been surrounded by enemies. Analogously, if a similar situation arises because of some other hindrance then also the directive should be the same.

4. The implication is that in this situation animal sacrifice shall become essential and in these compelling circumstances it will be equivalent to all the rites of Hajj.

5. In normal circumstances, the place and time of animal sacrifice is known; however, in the circumstances referred to here the place of sacrifice is the one where a person has been surrounded. The practice of the Prophet (sws) at the truce of Hudaybiyyah also corroborates this inference.

6. The Qur’anic words used are ‘مِّن صِيَامٍ أَوْ صَدَقَةٍ أَوْ نُسُكٍ’. Their style and construction show that the amount of the atonement has been left to the discretion of people. As per a narrative quoted in Bukhari (No: 1814), when the Prophet (sws) was asked about it, he said that it will suffice if three fasts are kept or six poor are fed or one goat is sacrificed.

7. It is evident that the better option is that one should offer Hajj and ‘Umrah in separate journeys. In a single journey, if the Ihram is taken of and worn again at the time of Hajj then this is a concession for people who live outside the boundaries of the Haram. This concession has been given to save them from the bother of journeying separately for both the rituals. For this very reason, atonement has been imposed on combining them in one journey. Consequently, a Muslim should benefit from this concession whilst knowing that he is availing a concession.

8. The way this word is used here, evidences the fact that the word ‘الْحَجُّ’ covers both Hajj and ‘Umrah (which is also called the lesser Hajj).

9. The implication is that this period is not so extensive that people should become apprehensive of its restrictions. At most, it is a matter of few months. A believer should spend this time carefully with full resolve and while remaining fearful to the Almighty.

10. The Qur’anic words used are: ‘فَمَن فَرَضَ فِيهِنَّ الْحَجَّ’. The style of the words ‘فَرَضَ فِيهِنَّ’ is evidence enough that it connotes the time when a person puts on the Ihram and makes a firm intention of offering Hajj.

11. Here a pilgrim has been stopped from three things. While explaining the reasons for this, Imam Amin Ahsan Islahi writes:

The first reason is that Hajj takes a pilgrim to that limit of ascetism and of abandoning this world which is required and desired in Islam and which is essential for the purification of the soul. Beyond it is the realm of Rahbaniyyah from which one has been stopped by Islam.

The second reason is that because of the restrictions of Ihram, a person is internally propelled towards these three prohibitions. It is a part of human weakness that the more a person is stopped from something the more he wants to do it and Satan takes full advantage of this weakness.

The third reason is that a lot of instances arise in which a person encounters these three things because he is on a journey. If he is not vigilant enough, he will readily succumb to evil in this regard. (Amin Ahsan Islahi, Tadabbur-i-Qur’an, 2nd ed., vol. 1, (Lahore: Faran Foundation, 1986), p. 485)

12. The Qur’anic words used are: ‘َتَزَوَّدُواْ فَإِنَّ خَيْرَ الزَّادِ التَّقْوَى’. Those well versed with the subtleties of the Arabic language know that when the word ‘فَإِنَّ’ is used thus, it explains the reason for what has been stated earlier. Viewed thus, there is an ellipses of the word ‘التَّقْوَى’ after ‘تَزَوَّدُواْ’. No other interpretation of sentence construction is appropriate in any way.

13. The Qur’anic words used are: ‘أَن تَبْتَغُواْ فَضْلاً مِّن رَّبِّكُمْ’. An ellipses of the particle ‘فِي’ has occurred here in the beginning of the sentence and the words ‘فَضْلاً مِّن رَّبِّكُم’ connote economic benefits for these words have been used in the Qur’an to generally connote this meaning. The implication is that the real purpose for the journey of Hajj should be Hajj itself, but if a person is able to make some financial gains through this journey then this cannot be objected to.

14. The reason for this statement is that in the age of ignorance when people reached Muzdalifah then instead of glorifying the Almighty and expressing gratitude and remembering Him they would light up fires and would assemble for expressing superiority and would set up gatherings for reciting tales and eulogies.

15. The implication is that the Quraysh should give due regard and be grateful of the guidance being provided to them by the Qur’an about Hajj and ‘Umrah. Formerly, they were guilty of converting these reverential sites into places of merry making. It is the Almighty’s grace that the real essence of these sites has been explained to them.

16. The reason for this directive is that in the age of Ignorance the Quraysh did not consider going to ‘Arafat as a mandatory part of the the Hajj. They would return from Muzdalifah reckoning that since they were the custodians and keepers of the Baytullah, it was not appropriate for them to go cross the limits of the Haram.

17. The implication is that since the Quraysh used to assemble at Mina to shower eulogies on their fore-fathers, they should now assemble to celebrate the praises of their Lord in even a more befitting manner.

18. The rituals of Hajj and ‘Umrah are an enlivening symbolic manifestation of the revival of the pledge of servitude to the Almighty and of war with Satan but it is the misfortune of man that he sees these great worship rituals in the light of his worldly benefits.

19. It is evident from this that it is this way of prayer that pleases the Almighty. Imam Amin Ahsan Islahi writes:

The message of this prayer is that a person should ask from the Almighty for what is good both in this world and in that to come and let Him decide whatever that might be. It is He who knows best what in reality is good for us. In particular, what is good in this world is dependent on the fact that it should become a means of our success in the Hereafter, and only the Almighty can have such knowledge. Hence, it is best for a person to leave this matter to the Almighty and not present his own suggestion in this regard; he, however, should keep asking for shelter from the punishment of Hell which indeed is severe. The greatest success of a person is that the Almighty shields him from the punishment of Hell. (Amin Ahsan Islahi, Tadabbur-i-Qur’an, 2nd ed., vol. 1, (Lahore: Faran Foundation, 1986), p. 488)

20. The place of discourse at which this sentence occurs shows that it is meant for assurance to the believers. They should rest assured that there is no delay in the fulfillment of the promises of the Almighty. When a person gets the reward, he will be happy to see that he got it earlier than he expected. Imam Amin Ahsan Islahi,while explaining this aspect, writes:

Here it is essential to consider that in such issues the real thing that matters is one’s realization which one will have at the time of reward and punishment. If at this time, one realizes that no time has elapsed between one’s deed and its reward or punishment then such a time period is not worthy of consideration. The right attitude then is that a sinner should keep before him the punishment of his sin and a believer the reward of his virtues. Neither should the former show vanity on being given respite nor should the latter become impatient on a delay. And if a person because of his foolishness does give importance to this span, then he  should realize that ‘مَنْ مَاتَ فَقَدْ قَامَتْ قِيَامَتُهُ’ (for a person who dies, the day of judegment is set up forthwith). (Amin Ahsan Islahi, Tadabbur-i-Qur’an, 2nd ed., vol. 1, (Lahore: Faran Foundation, 1986), p. 489)

21. The Qur’anic words used are: ‘فِي أَيَّامٍ مَّعْدُودَاتٍ’ (in the appointed days). This style not only expresses the small number of days but also the fact these days are known and fixed. In the opinion of this writer, here the second meaning is implied.

22. The implication is that a person is permitted to stay till the 13th of Dhu Al-Hajj or return on the 12th. Neither of the two options will incur any sin. This has been emphasized here because in matters of worship just as it is not allowed that a person take away from what has been stipulated for him, he is also not allowed to add to it.

23. The real importance is not of the number of days that people stay; the real importance is of the fact that the number of days he stays should be spent in the remembrance of the Almighty and while remaining fearful to him. The essence of worship is Taqwa, which is the basic purpose of etiquette and customs. If this is present, two days are more than enough and if this is not present, then even a stay of ten days will yield nothing.

24. Here at the end, a warning is sounded: just as people are gathered here at the Hajj, they shall be gathered before the Almighty on the Day of Judgement. They can get away with these sins here but on that day no one will be able to leave the presence of the Almighty without His consent.

For Questions on Islam, please use our

Replica Handbags Bottega Veneta fake Bvlgari fake Celine fake Christian Dior fake Gucci fake Gucci Bag fake Gucci Wallet fake Gucci Shoes fake Gucci Belt fake Hermes fake Loewe fake Louis Vuitton fake Louis Vuitton Belt fake Louis Vuitton Calf Leather fake Louis Vuitton Damier Azur Canvas fake Louis Vuitton Damier Ebene Canvas fake Louis Vuitton Damier Graphite Canvas fake Louis Vuitton Damier Infini Leather fake Louis Vuitton Damier Quilt lamb fake Louis Vuitton Embossed Calfskin fake Louis Vuitton Epi fake Louis Vuitton Game On Monogram Canvas fake Louis Vuitton Jewellery fake Louis Vuitton Key Holder fake Louis Vuitton Mahina Leather fake Louis Vuitton Monogram Canvas fake Louis Vuitton Monogram Denim fake Louis Vuitton Monogram Eclipse Canvas fake Louis Vuitton Monogram Empreinte fake Louis Vuitton Monogram Seal fake Louis Vuitton Monogram Shadow fake Louis Vuitton Monogram Vernis fake Louis Vuitton Monogram Watercolor fake Louis Vuitton New Wave fake Louis Vuitton Shoes fake Louis Vuitton Since 1854 fake Louis Vuitton Strap fake Louis Vuitton Taiga Leahter fake Louis Vuitton Taurillon leather fake Louis Vuitton Transformed Game On canvas fake Louis Vuitton Utah Calfskin fake Louis Vuitton X Supreme fake Mulberry fake Prada fake YSL fake