View Printable Version :: Email to a Friend
Surahs Hadid – Mujadalah
Qur'anic Exegesis
Javed Ahmad Ghamidi
(Tr. by:Dr. Shehzad Saleem)

Both these sūrahs form a pair with regard to their subject matter. A stern warning is sounded in the second sūrah to the Hypocrites who were creating propaganda against the jihād and infāq to which Muslims had been roused in the first sūrah. Both sūrahs are addressed to the Muslims and it is evident from their subject matter that they were revealed in the phase of the Prophet Muhammad’s preaching mission in which the individual and collective purification of the believers was underway while at the same time they were being unified by being cleansed from the disbelievers.

The theme of Sūrah Hadīd is to induce Muslims to jihād and infāq so that they may acquire the status of God’s favoured ones; similarly, those people are warned and urged who being unaware of the requisites of faith were hesitant in fulfilling the above mentioned directives of Islam.

The theme of Sūrah Mujādalah is to explain the requirements of faith and Islām, to warn and admonish the Hypocrites and to check the propaganda launched by them to shake the belief of the Muslims and to smother their enthusiasm for jihād.

 

بسم الله الرحمن الرحيم

سَبَّحَ لِلهِ مَا فِي السَّمَاوَاتِ وَالْأَرْضِ وَهُوَ الْعَزِيزُ الْحَكِيمُ (١) لَهُ مُلْكُ السَّمَاوَاتِ وَالْأَرْضِ يُحْيِي وَيُمِيتُ وَهُوَ عَلَى كُلِّ شَيْءٍ قَدِيرٌ (٢) هُوَ الْأَوَّلُ وَالْآخِرُ وَالظَّاهِرُ وَالْبَاطِنُ وَهُوَ بِكُلِّ شَيْءٍ عَلِيمٌ (٣) هُوَ الَّذِي خَلَقَ السَّمَاوَاتِ وَالْأَرْضَ فِي سِتَّةِ أَيَّامٍ ثُمَّ اسْتَوَى عَلَى الْعَرْشِ يَعْلَمُ مَا يَلِجُ فِي الْأَرْضِ وَمَا يَخْرُجُ مِنْهَا وَمَا يَنزِلُ مِنَ السَّمَاء وَمَا يَعْرُجُ فِيهَا وَهُوَ مَعَكُمْ أَيْنَ مَا كُنتُمْ وَاللهُ بِمَا تَعْمَلُونَ بَصِيرٌ (٤) لَهُ مُلْكُ السَّمَاوَاتِ وَالْأَرْضِ وَإِلَى اللهِ تُرْجَعُ الأمُورُ (٥) يُولِجُ اللَّيْلَ فِي النَّهَارِ وَيُولِجُ النَّهَارَ فِي اللَّيْلِ وَهُوَ عَلِيمٌ بِذَاتِ الصُّدُورِ (٦)

In the came of God, the Most Gracious, the Ever Merciful

All that is in the heavens and the earth has glorified God. And He is the Mighty, the Wise one.1 It is He Who has sovereignty over the heavens and the earth. He alone ordains life and death, and has power over all things. He is the First and also the Last, the Apparent and also the Hidden, and He has knowledge of all things.2 (1-3)

It was He who created the heavens and the earth in six days, and then [to govern them] mounted the throne.3 He knows all that goes into the earth and all that emerges from it and all that descends from the heavens and all that ascends in it. And He is with you wherever you are, and watches all that you do.4 To Him belongs the sovereignty of the heavens and the earth and to God all affairs turn.5 He makes the night to pass into the day, and the day to pass into the night, and He has knowledge of the secrets of chests. (4-6)

 

آمِنُوا بِاللهِ وَرَسُولِهِ وَأَنفِقُوا مِمَّا جَعَلَكُم مُّسْتَخْلَفِينَ فِيهِ فَالَّذِينَ آمَنُوا مِنكُمْ وَأَنفَقُوا لَهُمْ أَجْرٌ كَبِيرٌ (٧) وَمَا لَكُمْ لَا تُؤْمِنُونَ بِاللهِ وَالرَّسُولُ يَدْعُوكُمْ لِتُؤْمِنُوا بِرَبِّكُمْ وَقَدْ أَخَذَ مِيثَاقَكُمْ إِن كُنتُم مُّؤْمِنِينَ (٨) هُوَ الَّذِي يُنَزِّلُ عَلَى عَبْدِهِ آيَاتٍ بَيِّنَاتٍ لِيُخْرِجَكُم مِّنَ الظُّلُمَاتِ إِلَى النُّورِ وَإِنَّ اللهَ بِكُمْ لَرَؤُوفٌ رَّحِيمٌ (٩) وَمَا لَكُمْ أَلَّا تُنفِقُوا فِي سَبِيلِ اللهِ وَلِلهِ مِيرَاثُ السَّمَاوَاتِ وَالْأَرْضِ لَا يَسْتَوِي مِنكُم مَّنْ أَنفَقَ مِن قَبْلِ الْفَتْحِ وَقَاتَلَ أُوْلَئِكَ أَعْظَمُ دَرَجَةً مِّنَ الَّذِينَ أَنفَقُوا مِن بَعْدُ وَقَاتَلُوا وَكُلًّا وَعَدَ اللهُ الْحُسْنَى وَاللهُ بِمَا تَعْمَلُونَ خَبِيرٌ (10) مَن ذَا الَّذِي يُقْرِضُ اللهَ قَرْضًا حَسَنًا فَيُضَاعِفَهُ لَهُ وَلَهُ أَجْرٌ كَرِيمٌ (١٠) يَوْمَ تَرَى الْمُؤْمِنِينَ وَالْمُؤْمِنَاتِ يَسْعَى نُورُهُم بَيْنَ أَيْدِيهِمْ وَبِأَيْمَانِهِم بُشْرَاكُمُ الْيَوْمَ جَنَّاتٌ تَجْرِي مِن تَحْتِهَا الْأَنْهَارُ خَالِدِينَ فِيهَا ذَلِكَ هُوَ الْفَوْزُ الْعَظِيمُ (١٢) يَوْمَ يَقُولُ الْمُنَافِقُونَ وَالْمُنَافِقَاتُ لِلَّذِينَ آمَنُوا انظُرُونَا نَقْتَبِسْ مِن نُّورِكُمْ قِيلَ ارْجِعُوا وَرَاءكُمْ فَالْتَمِسُوا نُورًا فَضُرِبَ بَيْنَهُم بِسُورٍ لَّهُ بَابٌ بَاطِنُهُ فِيهِ الرَّحْمَةُ وَظَاهِرُهُ مِن قِبَلِهِ الْعَذَابُ (١٣) يُنَادُونَهُمْ أَلَمْ نَكُن مَّعَكُمْ قَالُوا بَلَى وَلَكِنَّكُمْ فَتَنتُمْ أَنفُسَكُمْ وَتَرَبَّصْتُمْ وَارْتَبْتُمْ وَغَرَّتْكُمُ الْأَمَانِيُّ حَتَّى جَاء أَمْرُ اللهِ وَغَرَّكُم بِاللهِ الْغَرُورُ (١٤) فَالْيَوْمَ لَا يُؤْخَذُ مِنكُمْ فِدْيَةٌ وَلَا مِنَ الَّذِينَ كَفَرُوا مَأْوَاكُمُ النَّارُ هِيَ مَوْلَاكُمْ وَبِئْسَ الْمَصِيرُ (١٥)

 

[So you also glorify God and] profess true faith6 in God and His Messenger and spend from the wealth He has entrusted you with;7 thus those of you who embraced faith [in this manner] and spent [in the way of God,] they shall be richly rewarded. And what has happened to you that you are not professing true faith in God and His Messenger even though the Messenger is inviting you to profess faith in your God, and He has taken a strong covenant [of to listen and obey] from you,8 if you really believe? (7-8)

It is He who brings down clear revelations to His servant so that he may lead you out of darkness9 into the light.10 And, in reality, God is very compassionate to you and ever-merciful.11 Why should you not spend in the cause of God when God alone will inherit the heavens and the earth?12 [It should be clear to you that] those of you who spend in charity and wage war [for the cause of truth] after the conquest,13 will never be equal to those who spend in charity and wage war [for the cause of truth] before the conquest. These people will have a greater status than those who spend in charity and wage war afterwards14 – although God has promised each a good reward.15 [Remember that] God is aware of all that you do. (9-10)

Who will [now] give a loan to God,16 a good loan17 so that He may increase it [however much He wants to] for him and there be a noble recompense for him. The day when you shall see believing men and believing women that their light is moving before them and on their right hands18 – Today glad tidings are for you of orchards below which streams are flowing; you shall abide in them forever. This, in fact, is the supreme triumph. The Day when the hypocrites, both men and women, will call out to the believers: “Please give us the chance to benefit from your light.” But they will be told: “Stand back, and seek the light [there for yourselves]!” Then a wall will be erected between them and the believers in which there will be a door. Inside it, there shall be mercy, and outside it torment. They will plead to them: “Were we not with you [in the previous world?]” “Yes,” they will reply, “you were indeed with us but you indulged in mischief, waited for our turn of fortunes, remained in doubts and your desires deceived you until God’s verdict materialized and that great Deceiver19 continued to deceive you about God till the very end. For this reason, today no ransom shall be accepted from you, or from those who openly disbelieve. The Fire shall be the abode for all of you; it is your place of return and what an evil abode it is!” (11-15)

 

أَلَمْ يَأْنِ لِلَّذِينَ آمَنُوا أَن تَخْشَعَ قُلُوبُهُمْ لِذِكْرِ اللهِ وَمَا نَزَلَ مِنَ الْحَقِّ وَلَا يَكُونُوا كَالَّذِينَ أُوتُوا الْكِتَابَ مِن قَبْلُ فَطَالَ عَلَيْهِمُ الْأَمَدُ فَقَسَتْ قُلُوبُهُمْ وَكَثِيرٌ مِّنْهُمْ فَاسِقُونَ (١٦) اعْلَمُوا أَنَّ اللهَ يُحْيِي الْأَرْضَ بَعْدَ مَوْتِهَا قَدْ بَيَّنَّا لَكُمُ الْآيَاتِ لَعَلَّكُمْ تَعْقِلُونَ (١٧) إِنَّ الْمُصَّدِّقِينَ وَالْمُصَّدِّقَاتِ وَأَقْرَضُوا اللهَ قَرْضًا حَسَنًا يُضَاعَفُ لَهُمْ وَلَهُمْ أَجْرٌ كَرِيمٌ (١٨) وَالَّذِينَ آمَنُوا بِاللهِ وَرُسُلِهِ أُوْلَئِكَ هُمُ الصِّدِّيقُونَ وَالشُّهَدَاء عِندَ رَبِّهِمْ لَهُمْ أَجْرُهُمْ وَنُورُهُمْ وَالَّذِينَ كَفَرُوا وَكَذَّبُوا بِآيَاتِنَا أُوْلَئِكَ أَصْحَابُ الْجَحِيمِ (١٩) اعْلَمُوا أَنَّمَا الْحَيَاةُ الدُّنْيَا لَعِبٌ وَلَهْوٌ وَزِينَةٌ وَتَفَاخُرٌ بَيْنَكُمْ وَتَكَاثُرٌ فِي الْأَمْوَالِ وَالْأَوْلَادِ كَمَثَلِ غَيْثٍ أَعْجَبَ الْكُفَّارَ نَبَاتُهُ ثُمَّ يَهِيجُ فَتَرَاهُ مُصْفَرًّا ثُمَّ يَكُونُ حُطَامًا وَفِي الْآخِرَةِ عَذَابٌ شَدِيدٌ وَمَغْفِرَةٌ مِّنَ اللهِ وَرِضْوَانٌ وَمَا الْحَيَاةُ الدُّنْيَا إِلَّا مَتَاعُ الْغُرُورِ (٢٠) سَابِقُوا إِلَى مَغْفِرَةٍ مِّن رَّبِّكُمْ وَجَنَّةٍ عَرْضُهَا كَعَرْضِ السَّمَاء وَالْأَرْضِ أُعِدَّتْ لِلَّذِينَ آمَنُوا بِاللهِ وَرُسُلِهِ ذَلِكَ فَضْلُ اللهِ يُؤْتِيهِ مَن يَشَاء وَاللهُ ذُو الْفَضْلِ الْعَظِيمِ (٢١) مَا أَصَابَ مِن مُّصِيبَةٍ فِي الْأَرْضِ وَلَا فِي أَنفُسِكُمْ إِلَّا فِي كِتَابٍ مِّن قَبْلِ أَن نَّبْرَأَهَا إِنَّ ذَلِكَ عَلَى اللهِ يَسِيرٌ (٢٢) لِكَيْلَا تَأْسَوْا عَلَى مَا فَاتَكُمْ وَلَا تَفْرَحُوا بِمَا آتَاكُمْ وَاللهُ لَا يُحِبُّ كُلَّ مُخْتَالٍ فَخُورٍ (٢٣) الَّذِينَ يَبْخَلُونَ وَيَأْمُرُونَ النَّاسَ بِالْبُخْلِ وَمَن يَتَوَلَّ فَإِنَّ اللهَ هُوَ الْغَنِيُّ الْحَمِيدُ (٢٤)

 

Is it not time20 for those who lay claim to faith that their hearts submit to God’s reminder and to the truth which has been revealed21 [by Him], and be not like those who were given the Book before this; then a long period passed on them – until  their hearts were hardened and [today] most of them are disobedient.22 (16)

[Take the initiative; it is possible that God melts your hearts.] Keep in mind that God restores the earth to life even after its death. We have made plain Our revelations to you that you may understand. (17)

[Keep in mind that] men or women who spend for the cause of God and those who give a generous loan23 to God shall be repaid manifold. And for them is a noble recompense. And those who have truly professed faith24 in God and His messengers will be among the siddīq25 and the shuhadā’.26 For them shall also be their reward and also their light. As for those who disbelieved and denied Our revelations, they will be the companions of Hell.27 (18-19)

Bear in mind that the parable of the life of this world – a sport and an entertainment and an embellishment and in the matter of wealth and children a mutual show off and a quest to outdo one another in them28 – is that of rain which produces a crop that lures the hearts of these disbelievers; then it blooms and you see it turn yellowish orange, then [a calamity strikes and it] turns into bits and pieces. [Bear in mind that after this] in the Hereafter there is a grievous penalty also and the forgiveness of God and His pleasure also. And the life of this world is but a provision of deception.29 (20)

[For this reason,] strive fervently while outdoing one another towards the forgiveness of your Lord and for a Paradise as vast as the heavens and the earth. It has been prepared for those who believe in God and His messengers. Such is the grace of God: He bestows it on whom He wills and great is God’s grace. (21)

[They do not spend in the way of God because they want to save it when some calamity visits them.30 Remember] there is no calamity that visits you in the earth or in your own persons and We have not written it in a book31 before We bring it into existence. This is very easy for God. You are [being told this] so that you may not grieve for things you lose or be proud of what He blesses you with. And [remember that] God does not love the slightest32 the haughty and the conceited who are stingy themselves and urge others to stinginess.33 And those who show indifference [even after this warning should know that God does not care for them.] This is because God is self-sufficient and possesses all worthy attributes.34 (22-24)

 

لَقَدْ أَرْسَلْنَا رُسُلَنَا بِالْبَيِّنَاتِ وَأَنزَلْنَا مَعَهُمُ الْكِتَابَ وَالْمِيزَانَ لِيَقُومَ النَّاسُ بِالْقِسْطِ وَأَنزَلْنَا الْحَدِيدَ فِيهِ بَأْسٌ شَدِيدٌ وَمَنَافِعُ لِلنَّاسِ وَلِيَعْلَمَ اللهُ مَن يَنصُرُهُ وَرُسُلَهُ بِالْغَيْبِ إِنَّ اللهَ قَوِيٌّ عَزِيزٌ (٢٥) وَلَقَدْ أَرْسَلْنَا نُوحًا وَإِبْرَاهِيمَ وَجَعَلْنَا فِي ذُرِّيَّتِهِمَا النُّبُوَّةَ وَالْكِتَابَ فَمِنْهُم مُّهْتَدٍ وَكَثِيرٌ مِّنْهُمْ فَاسِقُونَ (٢٦) ثُمَّ قَفَّيْنَا عَلَى آثَارِهِم بِرُسُلِنَا وَقَفَّيْنَا بِعِيسَى ابْنِ مَرْيَمَ وَآتَيْنَاهُ الْإِنجِيلَ وَجَعَلْنَا فِي قُلُوبِ الَّذِينَ اتَّبَعُوهُ رَأْفَةً وَرَحْمَةً وَرَهْبَانِيَّةَ ابْتَدَعُوهَا مَا كَتَبْنَاهَا عَلَيْهِمْ إِلَّا ابْتِغَاء رِضْوَانِ اللهِ فَمَا رَعَوْهَا حَقَّ رِعَايَتِهَا فَآتَيْنَا الَّذِينَ آمَنُوا مِنْهُمْ أَجْرَهُمْ وَكَثِيرٌ مِّنْهُمْ فَاسِقُونَ (٢٧) يَا أَيُّهَا الَّذِينَ آمَنُوا اتَّقُوا اللهَ وَآمِنُوا بِرَسُولِهِ يُؤْتِكُمْ كِفْلَيْنِ مِن رَّحْمَتِهِ وَيَجْعَل لَّكُمْ نُورًا تَمْشُونَ بِهِ وَيَغْفِرْ لَكُمْ وَاللهُ غَفُورٌ رَّحِيمٌ (٢٨) لِئَلَّا يَعْلَمَ أَهْلُ الْكِتَابِ أَلَّا يَقْدِرُونَ عَلَى شَيْءٍ مِّن فَضْلِ اللهِ وَأَنَّ الْفَضْلَ بِيَدِ اللهِ يُؤْتِيهِ مَن يَشَاء وَاللهُ ذُو الْفَضْلِ الْعَظِيمِ (٢٩)

They raise objections on jihād. Tell them:] We sent Our messengers with clear arguments, and with them revealed Our Book: that is the Scale35 so that people adhere to justice [regarding truth and falsehood]36 and sent down iron37 which has great power and other benefits for mankind [so that they may use it to their advantage] and so that [after conclusive communication of the truth from the messengers, their addressees are punished and in this manner] God sifts out38 people who help Him and His messengers without seeing Him. [Otherwise,] God is very Powerful and Mighty.39 (25)

And We sent forth Noah and Abraham as messengers [for this very purpose] and initiated in their progenies prophethood and made them recipients of divine Books. Thus some of them adopted guidance and most of them turned out to be disobedient. Then in their footsteps, We sent more messengers and also similarly sent Jesus son of Mary and gave Him the Gospel, and put compassion and mercy in the hearts of his followers. But monasticism, they invented themselves. We had never made it obligatory upon them; however, we did make it compulsory upon them that they seek to please God; but they did not faithfully observe its bounds. However, those among them who strongly adhered to faith, We gave them their reward but most of them turned out to be disobedient.40 (26-27)

Believers! Have fear of God and profess faith in His Messenger that way it should be professed.41 God will grant you a double share from His mercy42 and provide you a light with which you will walk [on the Day of Judgement] and will forgive you. God is very Forgiving and Merciful. [Vie with each other to earn His mercy] so that these People of the Book are not able to know that they do not have any control on anything from among the grace of God and that grace of God is in God’s Hands alone. He bestows it upon whom He wills and abounding is God’s grace.43 (28-29)

 

 

Sūrah Mujādalah

 

بسم الله الرحمن الرحيم

قَدْ سَمِعَ اللهُ قَوْلَ الَّتِي تُجَادِلُكَ فِي زَوْجِهَا وَتَشْتَكِي إِلَى اللهِ وَاللهُ يَسْمَعُ تَحَاوُرَكُمَا إِنَّ اللهَ سَمِيعٌ بَصِيرٌ (١) الَّذِينَ يُظَاهِرُونَ مِنكُم مِّن نِّسَائِهِم مَّا هُنَّ أُمَّهَاتِهِمْ إِنْ أُمَّهَاتُهُمْ إِلَّا اللَّائِي وَلَدْنَهُمْ وَإِنَّهُمْ لَيَقُولُونَ مُنكَرًا مِّنَ الْقَوْلِ وَزُورًا وَإِنَّ اللهَ لَعَفُوٌّ غَفُورٌ (٢) وَالَّذِينَ يُظَاهِرُونَ مِن نِّسَائِهِمْ ثُمَّ يَعُودُونَ لِمَا قَالُوا فَتَحْرِيرُ رَقَبَةٍ مِّن قَبْلِ أَن يَتَمَاسَّا ذَلِكُمْ تُوعَظُونَ بِهِ وَاللهُ بِمَا تَعْمَلُونَ خَبِيرٌ (٣) فَمَن لَّمْ يَجِدْ فَصِيَامُ شَهْرَيْنِ مُتَتَابِعَيْنِ مِن قَبْلِ أَن يَتَمَاسَّا فَمَن لَّمْ يَسْتَطِعْ فَإِطْعَامُ سِتِّينَ مِسْكِينًا ذَلِكَ لِتُؤْمِنُوا بِاللهِ وَرَسُولِهِ وَتِلْكَ حُدُودُ اللهِ وَلِلْكَافِرِينَ عَذَابٌ أَلِيمٌ (٤)

In the name of God, the Most Gracious, the Ever Merciful.

God has heard44 the words of the lady who had been arguing with you about her husband45 and would continue to implore God. God was hearing the conversation of both of you. Indeed, God hears all and observes all. 46 (1)

Those of you who do zihār with their wives,47 these wives do not become their mothers. Their mothers are those only who have given birth to them.48 Such people, however, utter words which are very despicable and false and in reality God [in spite of this is] very forgiving and merciful.49 [Tell them:] “Those who do zihār with their wives, and afterwards return to what they had said,50 then freeing a slave is required before they touch each other again.51 This is what you are being counselled of, and God is aware of all that you do.”52 Then, he who has no slave available to him shall fast two successive months53 before they touch one another. And he who does not even have the capacity to do this shall feed sixty of the destitute [before this].54 This is enjoined on you so that you may believe in God and His Messenger the way they should be believed in.55 And [bear in mind that] these are the bounds set by God. [Only disbelievers cross them], and for the disbelievers there is a grievous punishment. (2-4)

 

 

إِنَّ الَّذِينَ يُحَادُّونَ اللهَ وَرَسُولَهُ كُبِتُوا كَمَا كُبِتَ الَّذِينَ مِن قَبْلِهِمْ وَقَدْ أَنزَلْنَا آيَاتٍ بَيِّنَاتٍ وَلِلْكَافِرِينَ عَذَابٌ مُّهِينٌ (٥) يَوْمَ يَبْعَثُهُمُ اللهُ جَمِيعًا فَيُنَبِّئُهُم بِمَا عَمِلُوا أَحْصَاهُ اللهُ وَنَسُوهُ وَاللهُ عَلَى كُلِّ شَيْءٍ شَهِيدٌ (٦) أَلَمْ تَرَ أَنَّ اللهَ يَعْلَمُ مَا فِي السَّمَاوَاتِ وَمَا فِي الْأَرْضِ مَا يَكُونُ مِن نَّجْوَى ثَلَاثَةٍ إِلَّا هُوَ رَابِعُهُمْ وَلَا خَمْسَةٍ إِلَّا هُوَ سَادِسُهُمْ وَلَا أَدْنَى مِن ذَلِكَ وَلَا أَكْثَرَ إِلَّا هُوَ مَعَهُمْ أَيْنَ مَا كَانُوا ثُمَّ يُنَبِّئُهُم بِمَا عَمِلُوا يَوْمَ الْقِيَامَةِ إِنَّ اللهَ بِكُلِّ شَيْءٍ عَلِيمٌ (٧) أَلَمْ تَرَ إِلَى الَّذِينَ نُهُوا عَنِ النَّجْوَى ثُمَّ يَعُودُونَ لِمَا نُهُوا عَنْهُ وَيَتَنَاجَوْنَ بِالْإِثْمِ وَالْعُدْوَانِ وَمَعْصِيَتِ الرَّسُولِ وَإِذَا جَاؤُوكَ حَيَّوْكَ بِمَا لَمْ يُحَيِّكَ بِهِ اللهُ وَيَقُولُونَ فِي أَنفُسِهِمْ لَوْلَا يُعَذِّبُنَا اللهُ بِمَا نَقُولُ حَسْبُهُمْ جَهَنَّمُ يَصْلَوْنَهَا فَبِئْسَ الْمَصِيرُ (٨) يَا أَيُّهَا الَّذِينَ آمَنُوا إِذَا تَنَاجَيْتُمْ فَلَا تَتَنَاجَوْا بِالْإِثْمِ وَالْعُدْوَانِ وَمَعْصِيَتِ الرَّسُولِ وَتَنَاجَوْا بِالْبِرِّ وَالتَّقْوَى وَاتَّقُوا اللهَ الَّذِي إِلَيْهِ تُحْشَرُونَ (٩) إِنَّمَا النَّجْوَى مِنَ الشَّيْطَانِ لِيَحْزُنَ الَّذِينَ آمَنُوا وَلَيْسَ بِضَارِّهِمْ شَيْئًا إِلَّا بِإِذْنِ اللهِ وَعَلَى اللهِ فَلْيَتَوَكَّلِ الْمُؤْمِنُونَ (١٠) يَا أَيُّهَا الَّذِينَ آمَنُوا إِذَا قِيلَ لَكُمْ تَفَسَّحُوا فِي الْمَجَالِسِ فَافْسَحُوا يَفْسَحِ اللهُ لَكُمْ وَإِذَا قِيلَ انشُزُوا فَانشُزُوا يَرْفَعِ اللهُ الَّذِينَ آمَنُوا مِنكُمْ وَالَّذِينَ أُوتُوا الْعِلْمَ دَرَجَاتٍ وَاللهُ بِمَا تَعْمَلُونَ خَبِيرٌ (١١)

[On the other hand,] those who56 are confronting God and His Messenger shall be humiliated the way those before them of their sort have been. And We have sent down clear arguments [of this fate in this Qur’ān], and for these disbelievers, there is an utterly disgraceful torment.57 They should remember the day when God raises them all to life and then will inform them of each of their deeds. God has counted each and they have forgotten it and everything is in front of God. (5-6)

Have you not reflected that God knows everything of the heavens and the earth? It never happens that three converse secretly and God is not the fourth among them; and five converse secretly and God is not the sixth among them; whether fewer or more, wherever they be, He is with them. Then, on the Day of Judgement, He will inform them of all their doings. Indeed, God has knowledge of all things. (7)

Have you not seen those who though forbidden to converse secretly do what they have been forbidden,58 and these people [always] converse secretly about usurping rights, transgression and disobedience to the Messenger.59 And [O Prophet!] When they come to you, they pay salutations to you in words60 which God does not greet you with,61 and say in their hearts: “[If he is a Prophet, why does God not punish us for what we say?” 62 Hell alone is sufficient for them. They shall enter it and it is a very evil abode! (8)

Believers! When you converse secretly, do not converse of usurping rights, transgression and disobedience to the Messenger; in fact, converse about what is virtuous and pious and fear God before whom you all shall be brought together. (9)

Such secret conversations are from Satan so that he inflicts sorrow on the believers.63 Yet he cannot harm them in any way except by the will of God. And the faithful should put their trust in God in all circumstances. (10)

Believers! [To indulge in whispering they sit together in groups; so] make room in the gatherings [of the Prophet] when you are bidden do so;64 God will make room for you.65 And when it is said: “Get up,” then get up.66 God will elevate to high ranks those who have faith and knowledge among you.67 And [rest assured] God is fully aware of all that you do.68 (11)

 

يَا أَيُّهَا الَّذِينَ آمَنُوا إِذَا نَاجَيْتُمُ الرَّسُولَ فَقَدِّمُوا بَيْنَ يَدَيْ نَجْوَاكُمْ صَدَقَةً ذَلِكَ خَيْرٌ لَّكُمْ وَأَطْهَرُ فَإِن لَّمْ تَجِدُوا فَإِنَّ اللهَ غَفُورٌ رَّحِيمٌ (١٢) أَأَشْفَقْتُمْ أَن تُقَدِّمُوا بَيْنَ يَدَيْ نَجْوَاكُمْ صَدَقَاتٍ فَإِذْ لَمْ تَفْعَلُوا وَتَابَ اللهُ عَلَيْكُمْ فَأَقِيمُوا الصَّلَاةَ وَآتُوا الزَّكَاةَ وَأَطِيعُوا اللهَ وَرَسُولَهُ وَاللهُ خَبِيرٌ بِمَا تَعْمَلُونَ (١٣)

Believers! [A restriction is now imposed on you that] when you intend to confer in secret with the Messenger, give some charity before such conversation.69 This is best and more noble for you.70 But if you lack the means, God is Forgiving and Ever Merciful.71 (12)

Has fear overtook you that you will have to give in charity before conversing secretly with him?72 So, when you did not do this, and God had mercy on you [by lifting this restriction,73] then be diligent in the prayer [now] and pay the zakāh and show obedience to God and His Messenger. And [bear in mind that] God is well aware of all that you do. 74 (13)

 

أَلَمْ تَرَ إِلَى الَّذِينَ تَوَلَّوْا قَوْمًا غَضِبَ اللهُ عَلَيْهِم مَّا هُم مِّنكُمْ وَلَا مِنْهُمْ وَيَحْلِفُونَ عَلَى الْكَذِبِ وَهُمْ يَعْلَمُونَ (١٤) أَعَدَّ اللهُ لَهُمْ عَذَابًا شَدِيدًا إِنَّهُمْ سَاء مَا كَانُوا يَعْمَلُونَ (١٥) اتَّخَذُوا أَيْمَانَهُمْ جُنَّةً فَصَدُّوا عَن سَبِيلِ اللهِ فَلَهُمْ عَذَابٌ مُّهِينٌ (١٦) لَن تُغْنِيَ عَنْهُمْ أَمْوَالُهُمْ وَلَا أَوْلَادُهُم مِّنَ اللهِ شَيْئًا أُوْلَئِكَ أَصْحَابُ النَّارِ هُمْ فِيهَا خَالِدُونَ (١٧) يَوْمَ يَبْعَثُهُمُ اللهُ جَمِيعًا فَيَحْلِفُونَ لَهُ كَمَا يَحْلِفُونَ لَكُمْ وَيَحْسَبُونَ أَنَّهُمْ عَلَى شَيْءٍ أَلَا إِنَّهُمْ هُمُ الْكَاذِبُونَ (١٨) اسْتَحْوَذَ عَلَيْهِمُ الشَّيْطَانُ فَأَنسَاهُمْ ذِكْرَ اللهِ أُوْلَئِكَ حِزْبُ الشَّيْطَانِ أَلَا إِنَّ حِزْبَ الشَّيْطَانِ هُمُ الْخَاسِرُونَ (١٩) إِنَّ الَّذِينَ يُحَادُّونَ اللهَ وَرَسُولَهُ أُوْلَئِكَ فِي الأَذَلِّينَ (٢٠) كَتَبَ اللهُ لَأَغْلِبَنَّ أَنَا وَرُسُلِي إِنَّ اللهَ قَوِيٌّ عَزِيزٌ (٢١) لَا تَجِدُ قَوْمًا يُؤْمِنُونَ بِاللهِ وَالْيَوْمِ الْآخِرِ يُوَادُّونَ مَنْ حَادَّ اللهَ وَرَسُولَهُ وَلَوْ كَانُوا آبَاءهُمْ أَوْ أَبْنَاءهُمْ أَوْ إِخْوَانَهُمْ أَوْ عَشِيرَتَهُمْ أُوْلَئِكَ كَتَبَ فِي قُلُوبِهِمُ الْإِيمَانَ وَأَيَّدَهُم بِرُوحٍ مِّنْهُ وَيُدْخِلُهُمْ جَنَّاتٍ تَجْرِي مِن تَحْتِهَا الْأَنْهَارُ خَالِدِينَ فِيهَا رَضِيَ اللهُ عَنْهُمْ وَرَضُوا عَنْهُ أُوْلَئِكَ حِزْبُ اللهِ أَلَا إِنَّ حِزْبَ اللهِ هُمُ الْمُفْلِحُونَ (٢٢)

Have you not seen those who befriend people who incurred the wrath of God?75 They belong neither to you nor to them.76 And they intentionally swear to their falsehood [that they are with you]. God has prepared for them a grievous torment. Evil indeed is that which they are doing. They use their oaths as a shield. Thus they have desisted from the path of God. So a humiliating torment awaits them. (14-16)

Neither their wealth nor children77 shall in any way be able to protect them from [this torment of] God.78 They are the inmates of Hell. They shall abide in it forever. On the day when God raises all to life, they will swear to Him as they now swear to you79 and will think that they have a basis. Listen! They are absolute liars. Satan has gained possession of them. Thus he has made them forget God’s remembrance. They are the faction of Satan; Listen up! The faction of Satan is going to be the loser.80 (17-19)

[You should know that] those who show enmity to God and His Messenger, it is they who shall be humiliated. [This is because] God has decreed: “I Myself and My Messengers will surely be dominant.” 81 In reality, God is extremely powerful and very mighty. 82 (20-21)

You shall not find those who truly believe in God and in the Last Day on friendly terms with those who oppose God and His Messenger, even though they be their fathers, their sons, their brothers, or even their family.83 It is these people in whose hearts God has stamped faith, and helped them with a special blessing of His own.84 And [on the Day of Judgement] He will admit them to gardens watered by running streams. They shall dwell there forever. God is well pleased with them, and they are well pleased with Him. They are the faction of God. Listen up! It is only God’s faction that will succeed.85 (22)

 

 

Lahore

15th September 2009

 

_____________

 

1. The implication is that from its very existence every object of this universe has always expressed the fact that God has not created this world for His amusement; He is beyond doing such a meaningless thing; thus human beings too must acknowledge all these facts through their deeds. Other wise, since He is powerful, He will summon them to His presence because He is wise as well. How is it possible that He equate the righteous and the wrongdoers viz a viz their fate?

2. After mentioning the all embracing power of God, this is now a mention of His all-embracing knowledge: He is beyond the confines of space and time. Thus He is the First – no one was before Him; He is the Last – no one will be after Him; He is the Apparent – nothing is above Him; He is the Hidden – nothing is below Him. His knowledge embraces everything from the beginning to the end and from the inside to the outside.

3. This is a further explanation of the all-embracing knowledge and power of God mentioned above: He created the heavens and the earth in six days and did not disconnect Himself from their affairs after creating them; in fact, He is still governing their affairs: Imām Amīn Ahsan Islāhī writes:

Wherever in the Qur’ān the six-day creation of the heavens and the earth is mentioned, the purpose is to direct attention to the elaborate arrangement made by the Almighty in creating them. After this, the inference is made that when God has created all this in such an elaborate and thorough manner, how will He become indifferent to their affairs and not show concern on its good and evil and why would He remain a silent spectator on whatever mischief and excesses people may indulge in. If He does so, then this will only mean that He has made this universe as an amusement in which He made elaborate arrangements but it has no purpose. (Amīn Ahsan Islāhī, Tadabbur-i Qur’ān, vol. 8, 198)

4. This is a mention of alertness and the minute manner in which the Almighty is looking after the affairs of His dominion.

5. The implication is that no matter rests on the discretion of someone else. All affairs originate through His directive and the fate of deeds is presented before Him.

6. The actual word is: آمِنُوا. It is evident from the subject ahead that it is used in its true and complete sense. The implication is that if they claim to profess faith then they should do so in a befitting manner. This is because when one is to deal with the Almighty Whose attributes are mentioned earlier, then one cannot please Him by merely laying claim to faith.

7. This verse urges people to spend for the needs of jihād that was required in the times of Muhammad’s prophethood. The succeeding verses point to this.

8. This refers to the covenant mentioned in verse five of this sūrah.

9. Reference is to one’s base desires and to the darkness of love for this world which generally get the better of man.

10. Thus it is this light which shows the way in this world, and leads man to his destination in the Hereafter.

11. The actual words are رَؤُوفٌ  and رَّحِيمٌ. Connoisseurs of the language know that the dominant aspect in the verbal noun رأفت is to absolve God of sins and the dominant aspect in the verbal noun رحمت is to acclaim goodness in Him. 

12. The implication is that when everything must return to God, and the status of man is only that of a trustee in this short span of life, then what is the point in stopping from God what He Himself has entrusted man with

13. This is a mention of the conquest of Makkah. Till that time though Makkah was still under the political control of the Quraysh, Muslims knew that this conquest had become their fate.

14. This is an invitation to become among the foremost (the sābiqūn) mentioned in Sūrah Waqi‘ah.

15. In other words, after the conquest of Makkah as well, the righteous will be rewarded and will be granted ranks and status in accordance with their services. Imām Amīn Ahsan Islāhī writes:

 

Whoever will serve Islam with sincerity and good intention will gain reward; moreover, there will be those among them who would be categorized among the topmost. However, the period before the conquest of Makkah is different. Fortunate are the people who recognize its worth and duly benefit from it. (Amīn Ahsan Islāhī, Tadabbur-i Qur’ān, vol. 8, 206)

 

16. In the Qur’ān, this term signifies spending for the cause of fulfilling God’s mission. Here, it is evident from the context that this appeal was made for the jihād waged by the Prophet (sws) and his companions. Imām Amīn Ahsan Islāhī writes:

 

… It has become evident earlier that whatever a person has is a trust given to him by God. It is a great favour of the munificent God that when He asks people to spend for His cause the very wealth He had blessed them with, He calls it a loan for which He is liable to them to pay back just as a borrower is responsible to pay back what he has borrowed from a money-lender. (Amīn Ahsan Islāhī, Tadabbur-i Qur’ān, vol. 8, 207)

17. The actual words are: قَرْضًا حَسَنًا. It refers to the pure wealth spent generously and whole-heartedly for the cause of God merely to please Him.

18. This light will be the resultant benefit drawn from the spending to which people are being invited here. It will spread in front of these people and on their right sides so that the companions of the left hand are not able to benefit from it in any way.

19. This refers to Satan who has always taught man that being presented before God and the accountability of the Hereafter are all baseless things; they neither proved to be true in the past nor will they prove true now; there is no need to bear any hardship; there is nothing but bliss and joy for them.

20. In other words, this time has not come even after the manifestation of various signs and indications which point to the truth of the message of the Prophet (sws)?

21. Two words are used in this verse:ذِكْرُ اللهِ  and الْحَقِّ. Both refer to the Qur’ān. The first refers to its warning and the second to the established facts which it made clear by making them distinct from evil.

22. The implication is that even if now these people remain afflicted with doubts and do not pay heed, then it is quite possible that they will encounter the same fate as the one encountered by the Jews before. Imām Amīn Ahsan Islāhī writes:

 

It is evident from this discussion that there is nothing wrong about doubts arising on some matter relating to the truth; neither is their existence for some time any matter of rebuke. A sincere person can also face this situation; however, if a person by seeking refuge in these doubts keeps lulling the calls of the truth, which arise in him, to sleep and makes them an excuse to adhere to falsehood, then as per the established practice of the Almighty, he is deprived of the very ability to accept the truth. The Almighty does not bear for long a person not giving due importance to the truth. (Amīn Ahsan Islāhī, Tadabbur-i Qur’ān, vol. 8, 216)

 

23. Two words are used for infāq (spending in the way of God) in this verse: sadaqah in the form of an ism al-fā‘il or an adjective and the other qard (loan) in the form of a verb. What is the difference between the two? Imām Amīn Ahsan Islāhī has explained it this:

 

… One type of spending in the way of God is something which is demanded in general circumstances from every Muslim who can spend, and which is an essential ingredient of acquiring purification of the soul. Another type of spending in the way of God is one which is made as a demand from people in emergency situations for the protection and preservation of the Muslims. The first of these is called sadaqah and for this adjectives and ism al-fā‘ils are used because it is a permanent requirement. The second of these is called loan and since it is given at the time of need, verbs are used to express it. (Amīn Ahsan Islāhī, Tadabbur-i Qur’ān, vol. 8, 218)

24. Here the word īmān (faith) is in its complete and all-embracing meaning.

25. After prophethood, this is the highest level a person can achieve before God. Its essence is harmony between one’s intentions and one’s words and deeds as well as firmness in all these three spheres. A person who does not utter from his mouth anything against the truth, whose words and deeds have no contradiction between them and fulfils whatever he says with sincerity of intention, then such a person in the terminology of the Qur’ān is called siddīq. The most prominent person who reflected this trait was Abū Bakr (rta). That is why he is called al-siddīq.

26. This is the second level after siddīq. It refers to people who bear witness to the truth through their words and deeds and if needed go as a far as sacrificing their lives for it.

27. The same directive will be for those who did not deny with their tongue but their deeds belied their claim.

28. After أَنَّمَا الْحَيَاةُ الدُّنْيَا, these words occur as a permutative (badal). In other words, these are the aspects of the worldly life by which the rejecters and hypocrites are lured away and lead this life while regarding them to be the objective of all their efforts. It is evident from this that this is not a collective comment on worldly life. Thus the words أَعْجَبَ الْكُفَّارَ نَبَاتُهُ of the parable show that this comment is with respect to the aspect that lures away the rejecters of the Hereafter.

29. The implication is that if people lead this life with true faith in God and in the Hereafter, then it guarantees them an eternal kingdom; however, if they regard this worldly life to be everything and disregard the Hereafter, then this world is mere deception. It has no status beyond this.

30. Imām Amīn Ahsan Islāhī writes:

 

… At other places in the Qur’ān, a trait of the character of the Hypocrites and the misers has been mentioned: they would desist from spending for the cause of God because of the fear of some future monetary need that may arise. In other words, they justified their miserliness to be a remedy for future hardships and calamities; the fact of the matter is that what is going to happen is bound to happen. Its remedy is not to show stinginess before God; the cure lies in spending for His cause and trusting Him. (Amīn Ahsan Islāhī, Tadabbur-i Qur’ān, vol. 8, 223)

 

[31. This is a mention of God’s knowledge. It is also signified by the term “The Guarded Tablet”.

[32. These words apparently seem soft; however, they are very severe with regard to their meaning. Imām Amīn Ahsan Islāhī writes:

 

…What is said in such a negative statement when expressed as a positive statement would be something like this:إنَّ اللهَ يَبْغَضُ كُلَّ مُخْتَالٍ فَخُوْرٍ (Indeed, God hates the proud and the haughty). In reality, the speaker does not want to say this in explicit words and wants his anger to be understood implicitly through the style and nuance of his words. (Amīn Ahsan Islāhī, Tadabbur-i Qur’ān, vol. 8, 223)

 

[33. They urge others to stinginess so that their own stinginess remains hidden.

[34. What is the purpose of these two attributes? Imām Amīn Ahsan Islāhī has explained this in the following words:

 

The attribute hamīd is mentioned with the attribute ghanī to show that God is absolutely self-sufficient and indifferent as far as His person is concerned. He needs no one. If He asks from people, then this is not because He is in need of them; it is because He is hamīd; He wants people to become worthy of His blessings and convert the pebbles they give to Him into pearls and return these to them. (Amīn Ahsan Islāhī, Tadabbur-i Qur’ān, vol. 8, 223)

 

[35. The actual words are: وَأَنزَلْنَا مَعَهُمُ الْكِتَابَ وَ الْمِيزَانَ. The particle و is for explication. Thus الْمِيزَانَ is actually an explanation of الْكِتَابَ. The implication is that books were revealed with the prophets of God so that these books resolve all differences which exist regarding religion and weigh the religious views of people and inform them how close to the truth they are.

[36. The implication is that they are able to adopt exactly the path which is free from deviation and able to adhere to plain and absolute justice by cleansing themselves of religion innovations, false views and divergences.

[37. Iron comes out from the earth; however, the word أَنزَلْنَا (We sent it down) is used. Imām Amīn Ahsan Islāhī writes:

 

… This is very similar to the usage of this word by the Qur’ān for the creation of cattle. The purpose is, on the one hand, to direct attention to the special benefit which is found in it for man, and, on the other hand, this word tells us of the real source and fountainhead of everything: a thing can be obtained from anywhere, but the fact of the matter is that it is from God. Until and unless, a person has this fact fully grounded in his mind, he can never fully assess the value of God’s favours. (Amīn Ahsan Islāhī, Tadabbur-i Qur’ān, vol. 8, 230)

 

[38. The actual words are: وَلِيَعْلَمَ اللهُ. Just as the verb عَلِمَ means “to know” it also means “to sift out”. This second meaning is using the verb in the consequence of the first one. It is generally used in this meaning in all instances of the given context.

[39. When the truth is communicated by messengers of God to their respective nations, then those who deny it are punished. This punishment also descends from the sky and at times from the swords of the believers. It is this second situation which is under discussion here. The Almighty has in fact answered here why He has chosen to punish the rejecters through the sword of the disbelievers instead of natural calamities and disasters. It is said that God is mighty and powerful; no one can run away from His armies; He can destroy the rejecters whenever He wants to; however, He has adopted this way in this regard to test the believers whether they really deserve the success they will be given as a result of this punishment. Thus the truthful and the liars, the believers and the hypocrites are totally distinguished through this test.

[40. Ie., all the messengers of God came for this conclusive communication of the truth and as a result of it to mete out reward and punishment. The objective of Jesus (sws) was the same as well. If he had been able to win a substantial number of companions and also a place for migration, he too would have waged jihād in a similar way. For this, one needs to consult the Torah and look up the directives of jihād. In this matter it is the mīzān (the scale) revealed by God. Jesus (sws) never came to abrogate it; he only came to complete it. He never taught monasticism to his followers so that it may be made a basis to raise objections against jihād. It was an invention of his followers. One of its motives was the compassion and mercy which God Himself put in their hearts for the purpose of preaching; the second was to seek God’s pleasure whose bounds they unfortunately could not abide by; however, God does not waste the reward of a deed done to please Him; hence those of them who adhered to faith will definitely get its reward; however, their majority is disobedient; they became indifferent to the teachings of Jesus (sws) and adopted the Christianity of Saint Paul and instead of God’s pleasure ended up facing His wrath. 

[41. After answering all the objections, the addressees of this sūrah in the end are once again invited to not merely profess faith by their tongues; they should profess faith with all their heart’s intent and fulfil those requirements of faith which have now come before them in the forms of jihād and infāq.

[42. The first of these shares would be in reward for leaving their ancestral religion and embracing Islam and the second for fulfilling with all sincerity and steadfastness the requirements of this faith.

[43. The implication is that the People of the Book have continued to think that they are the sole recipients of God’s grace and in this manner by opposing the last prophet because of their biased ignorance become deprived of God’s favours forever. This sentence expresses great aversion and dislike. Such a statement is given when no hope remains for someone to mend his ways and it is decided that he will have to bear the consequences of this ignorance of his; so it is better that he remain in this ignorance and he is not able to get out of it in any way; he deserves this and not sympathy.

[44. The word “heard” here does not merely mean to listen – but to accept. In the English language too, this word is used thus. The name of this lady as mentioned in certain narratives was Khawlah bint Tha‘labah. Her husband Aws ibn Sāmit al-Ansārī was the brother of ‘Ubādah ibn Sāmit, a leader of the Aws tribe. It is evident from some narratives that he was ill-tempered and had also become irritable in old age. In this state, he had done zihār with his wife. The verse under discussion describes this very incident.

This incident is narrated in the beginning of the sūrah to tell its addressees that if a believer faces a puzzling situation regarding religion, then like this lady, he should present it before the Almighty; he should not make this situation an excuse for criticizing religion like the hypocrites would do and for creating confrontation against God and His messenger; insistence and assertion in such matters is also not prohibited; the Almighty hears such petitions with great affection and attention.

[45. The actual word used is تُجَادِلُكَ. According to linguistic principles, an incomplete verb is suppressed before it. If this suppression is kept in consideration, then it would mean the lady, whose case is discussed here, presented her petition with insistence and emphasis more than once before the Prophet (sws). The Qur’ān has used this word مُجَادَلَةٌ both in its positive and negative meaning. Imām Amīn Ahsan Islāhī writes:

 

… When used negatively, it means “to quibble” and “to quarrel.” When used positively, it refers to convince someone through affection, pleading, insistence and fondness; here the element of quarrel is present too; however, this quarrel is with love and trust, the way children try to convince their elders by quarrelling with them all the while trusting their affection. The best example of such an affectionate quarrel is that of Abraham (sws) which he had with His Lord regarding the people of Lot (sws). The Almighty praised it profusely. I have already referred to it in this tafsīr. The argument of the lady mentioned in this verse was of precisely this nature as well. (Amīn Ahsan Islāhī, Tadabbur-i Qur’ān, vol. 8, 230)

 

[46. It is evident from this that she was continuously making her petition to save her own life and that of her children from getting ruined and wanted some solution to her problem. At that time, there was no clear guidance available to the Prophet (sws) in the form of divine revelation; thus he was hesitant in answering her till finally her cries were heard by the Lord who sees and hears all. All this conversation was taking place before Him and He was listening to it very attentively and with great affection.

[47. Like īlā, zihār too is a term of the Arab jāhiliyyah. It means that a husband had used the words أَنْتَ عَلَيَّ كَظَهْرِ أُمَي (if I now become sexually intimate with you, it will be as if I come near my mother for this purpose) for his wife. These words in those times would amount to giving such a divorce to the wife after which a wife had to be separated from her husband. The Arabs would think that by saying such words a husband is not only severing marital ties with his wife, he is also prohibiting her for himself like his own mother. Consequently, in their view, though after divorcing a wife a husband had the right to revoke it, but after doing zihār there was no chance left for him for any revocation.

[48. Ie., if a person is unseemly enough to regard his wife as his mother or likens some limb of his wife to that of his mother, then such an utterance does not make his wife his mother and neither is she endowed with the sanctity a mother has. To be a mother is a reality since she has given birth to a person. The sanctity in relationship she is invested with is because of this very fact. This is an eternal and natural sanctity which only a real mother has. No other lady who is called by this name in such a manner can ever possess this sanctity. Consequently, such an utterance neither breaks marital ties nor does a wife become prohibited for a person like his mother.

[49. In other words, if a person utters such a sentence, then he should know that these are very indecent and fallacious words, which no civilized person can ever think of let alone uttering them. Such a person could have been heavily taken to task by the Almighty, but He is most gracious and most merciful. So if a person overcome by anger says these false and abominable words and then realizes his mistake, he shall be forgiven by the Almighty.

[50. There is certain amount of ambiguity found in this sentence in deference to eloquence which is evident from the words:مِن قَبْلِ أَن يَتَمَاسَّا. Imām Amīn Ahsan Islāhī writes:

 

… The reason for this ambiguity is that what they allude to is self-obviously evil. The Qur’ān has also regarded it to be مُنكَر and زُور. It was inappropriate to mention an evil in explicit terms. For this reason, the Qur’ān referred to it in vague terms. The meaning of the expression thus is that if they want to do the same thing which they had prohibited upon themselves like the prohibition of their mothers, then they must liberate a slave before being intimate with their wives. (Amīn Ahsan Islāhī, Tadabbur-i Qur’ān, vol. 8, 250)

 

[51. The actual word used is: رَقَبَةٌ (neck). It is evident from this word that no distinction is to be made in this regard between a slave-man and a slave-lady. Whoever is available can be used to atone for the sin. This is one of the measures that Islam adopted for the emancipation of slaves. For this reason, this option is placed the foremost before the other two. After the eradication of slavery, obviously only the other options remain that are mentioned later in the verse.

[52. The implication is that this is God’s directive and whatever directive is given from God should be sincerely fulfilled both in letter and spirit, and it should be borne in mind that God is aware of everything and nothing shall remain hidden from him.

53. The actual word is مُتَتَابِعَيْنِ. It is evident from it that if before the termination of two months, a person becomes intimate with his wife, he will have to begin the count all over again.

[54. Earlier it was said that God is forgiving and merciful; after that the methodology of atonement is delineated. The implication is that God is forgiving but this does not mean that such people should be allowed to go free without admonishing them. Such things heavily influence the social lives of people; hence it is essential that they be punished so that they are careful in future and others also learn a lesson from this.

55. The actual words are: ذَلِكَ لِتُؤْمِنُوا بِاللهِ وَرَسُولِهِ. The verb in them is used in its complete meaning. The implication is that if this directive is followed in letter and in spirit, then this would fulfill one’s obligation towards one’s faith in God and His Messenger. The reason for this is that if a person atones for his sin by undergoing such hardship, it not only atones his sin but his faith also is further strengthened.

56. This is a reference to the Hypocrites all of whose sympathies were with the enemies of Islam, in particular the Jews. They would launch a whispering campaign and secret propaganda against any teaching of Islam they would regard as being against their desires. The purpose would be to create doubts in the minds of weak Muslims and strip them of their conviction in Islam.

57. Ie., their fate will be the same as the one met by the rejecters of the messengers of God after these messengers have conclusively communicated the truth to them. This is an established practice of God and He never changes this established practice. His law is the same for everyone.

58. It is evident from this that when this secret propaganda began, the Prophet (sws) checked them; however, they were not bothered and continued to indulge in it.

59. This is a reference to the actual objective to achieve which these secret conversations were initiated. The purpose was to induce Muslims to rebel against the Prophet (sws) so that the very foundation on which the edifice of this new religion was built is razed to ground.

60. The Almighty has not quoted their words. It is evident from Hadīth narratives that they would pronounce them in such a way that the listener would think that they have said السلام عليك (peace be to you) to him; however in fact, they would have uttered the word السام which means “death” and السام عليك would mean “death be to you”. (Bukhārī, no. 5678).

61. This is a reference to the salutation from God and the angels mentioned in verse thirty three of Sūrah Ahzāb.

62. They would mean that since this does not happen, hence his claim that he is God’s Messenger is baseless.

63. What Satan can only do is inflict sorrow on the believers. Beyond this, he can do nothing even if he wants to.

64. This has been said to curb the mischief worked by the hypocrites in the gatherings of the Prophet (sws) through their whispering, gesturing, veiled references and sarcastic remarks. When people are told on behalf of the Prophet (sws) that they should not sit in groups but sit with spaces between them, then this directive should be obeyed without any reluctance.

[65. That is God will create room and space for them in Paradise ahead. However, there are some insinuations in this for this world as well. Imām Amīn Ahsan Islāhī writes:

 

… The apparent sense of these words is that the Almighty will create room for them in Paradise; however, the truth of the matter is that for the person who widens his heart for others, the Almighty widens the hearts of others for him. Every deed of a person whether apparent or hidden, good or evil has a natural impact; its true manifestation will take place in the Hereafter yet its consequences are also seen in this world as well, provided a person has eyes to see them. (Amīn Ahsan Islāhī, Tadabbur-i Qur’ān, vol. 8, 262)

 

66. The implication is that if the whole gathering is disbanded or if a person is told individually to change his place or leave the gathering, then he should do so without any objection or hesitation and obey the Prophet (sws) whole-heartedly.

[67. These words are very meaningful. Imām Amīn Ahsan Islāhī writes:

 

… The implication is that the Hypocrites who have infiltrated in the ranks of the Muslims will definitely raise objections against such a directive; they will regard giving space to others by getting up as tantamount to disgracing them. Some of them would even think that they are inferior to others with regard to knowledge and deeds because of which they have been given preference over them; however, men of knowledge and the faithful who whole-heartedly obey this directive will be greatly rewarded in the Hereafter by the Almighty. (Amīn Ahsan Islāhī, Tadabbur-i Qur’ān, vol. 8, 263)

 

68. Ie., since He is aware, He will fully reward people.

69. After the Muslims were checked earlier, there was a possibility that the Hypocrites would come and try to satisfy the Prophet (sws) by their sweet and clever talk. This restriction was imposed to circumvent this. The implication was that meeting in private should become a serious matter and whoever comes in the presence of the Prophet (sws) should be on guard and also come after doing some hard work.

70. Since this directive was given to all Muslims, the sincere among them are assured that his would discourage the Hypocrites. Thus it will have a positive influence on their group and make them strong on the obedience of God and His Prophet (sws); hence it also noble in nature.

71. Ie., the poor and the indigent were exempt from this directive. They could still meet the Prophet (sws) in private as before and talk to him.

72. Ie., they were overtaken by fear because they thought that they must certainly have made a mistake because of which this restriction has been imposed on them by God.

[73. Ie., when no one made a request to meet the Prophet (sws) in private, the Hypocrites also did not dared to attempt this. Imām Amīn Ahsan Islāhī writes:

 

… This restriction must have been lifted when this mischief had been checked or when the feeling of abstaining from it arose in the people. This purpose cannot be achieved in a few hours. Some time must have necessarily elapsed, and for this reason there must been such time difference between the two directives as is necessary to achieve an objective. (Amīn Ahsan Islāhī, Tadabbur-i Qur’ān, vol. 8, 266)

 

74. The implication is that these directives must be strongly adhered to by the Muslims because they will help them strongly adhere to their stance in the wake of the mischief worked by the Hypocrites.

75. The reference is to the Jews of Madīnah who these people had befriended.

76. Ie., They are neither sincere in their friendship with the Muslims nor with the Jews. Their friendship with both is because of their vested interests.

77. This refers to the chains that have fettered them. It is this wealth and children which has stopped them from moving towards the path of God.

78. The actual words are: مِّنَ اللهِ. A governing noun (mudāf) is suppressed here. The actual construction is مِّنَ عَذَابِ اللهِ.

79. It is mentioned in verse 23 of Sūrah An‘ām that when the Idolaters see the torment, they will try to prove their innocence by swearing:(6: 23)  وَاللّهِ رَبِّنَا مَا كُنَّا مُشْرِكِينَ (By God our Lord! We are not among them who set up partners with God, (6:23)).

80. The implication is that it will end up on the losing side both in this world and the next. This is because it is this fate which is met by people who after conclusively being communicated the truth by the messengers still remain companions of Satan

81. This is a statement of the established practice of God ordained from the very beginning of time: the rift between truth and falsehood in the times of messengers of God reaches its culmination in dominance for God and His messengers, and the devils who try to fight with them with their groups are necessarily humbled and humiliated.

[82. This is the argument of the claim just made. Imām Amīn Ahsan Islāhī writes:

 

… It is stated that God is not a weak being: He is powerful and mighty. When He sends His messenger to His people, then that messenger is His envoy who comes to people to inform them of the directives of their real king. If people rise to obey the directives of their real master, they are granted sovereignty by Him in the land and are blessed with His favours. On the other hand, if they take to opposing God, they are regarded as rebels, and once the truth is conclusively communicated to them, the Almighty cleanses the earth of them. (Amīn Ahsan Islāhī, Tadabbur-i Qur’ān, vol. 8, 273)

 

[83. The implication is that true faith in the religion of truth and loving the enemies of religion are contradictory to one another. It cannot be even thought of that they can simultaneously exist in a person. No person has two hearts in his chest so that he can gather the love of such contradictory and mutually opposing things in himself.

[84. It is this very help through whose strength a person gets ready to break all ties and relations to support and back the truth even though this is no easy an undertaking. Imām Amīn Ahsan Islāhī writes:

 

It was as a result of this spiritual blessing that in the battle of Uhud, Abū ‘Ubaydah ibn al-Jarrāh (rta) raised his sword against his father ‘Abdullāh al-Jarrāh, Abū Bakr (rta) challenged his son in the battle of Badr, Mus‘ab ibn ‘Umayr killed his brother ‘Ubayd ibn ‘Umayr, ‘Umar (rta) killed his maternal uncle ‘Ās ibn Hishām, and ‘Alī (rta), Hamzah (rta) and Abū ‘Ubaydah (rta) sent ‘Utbah, Shaybah and Walīd ibn ‘Utbah respectively to the gallows. (Amīn Ahsan Islāhī, Tadabbur-i Qur’ān, vol. 8, 275)

 

[85. This is a mention of the sincere people who professed faith in the Prophet (sws). Since they were deputed from God and as such were in the capacity of his army that became a means of punishment that necessarily visits the rejecters of a messenger, they are called the “Faction of God” (حِزْبُ اللهِ) in contrast to the “Faction of Satan” (حِزْبُ الشَّيْطَانِ).

 

 

   
 
For Questions on Islam, please use our