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Surah Qamar and Surah Rahman
Qur'anic Exegesis
Javed Ahmad Ghamidi
(Tr. by:Dr. Shehzad Saleem)

Sūrah Qamar



Both these sūrahs form a pair with regard to their subject. Both have a recurring verse. Hence, this apparent similarity is very evident. The topic of both is to substantiate the Day of Judgement and to warn people and to give glad tidings to them on its basis. In the first sūrah, arguments are adduced from God’s law of meting out reward and punishment in this world to the foremost addressees of His Messengers after they intentionally deny them. In the second sūrah, arguments are adduced from the signs of God’s mercy, power, wisdom and providence found in the world within man and that around him.

Both sūrahs are addressed to the Quraysh who were demanding a sign of the punishment they were being threatened with. Their attention is directed to every single incident and sign and warned why they do no observe these signs seek a lesson from them? The recurring verses of both the sūrahs are meant to jolt and shake these stubborn and obdurate addressees.

It is evident from the subject of sūrahs that they were revealed in Makkah in the phase of indhār-i ‘ām (open warning) of the Prophet’s preaching mission.


بسم الله الرحمن الرحيم

اقْتَرَبَتِ السَّاعَةُ وَانشَقَّ الْقَمَرُ (١) وَإِن يَرَوْا آيَةً يُعْرِضُوا وَيَقُولُوا سِحْرٌ مُّسْتَمِرٌّ (٢) وَكَذَّبُوا وَاتَّبَعُوا أَهْوَاءهُمْ وَكُلُّ أَمْرٍ مُّسْتَقِرٌّ (٣) وَلَقَدْ جَاءهُم مِّنَ الْأَنبَاء مَا فِيهِ مُزْدَجَرٌ (٤) حِكْمَةٌ بَالِغَةٌ فَمَا تُغْنِ النُّذُرُ (٥) فَتَوَلَّ عَنْهُمْ يَوْمَ يَدْعُ الدَّاعِ إِلَى شَيْءٍ نُّكُرٍ (٦) خُشَّعًا أَبْصَارُهُمْ يَخْرُجُونَ مِنَ الْأَجْدَاثِ كَأَنَّهُمْ جَرَادٌ مُّنتَشِرٌ (٧) مُّهْطِعِينَ إِلَى الدَّاعِ يَقُولُ الْكَافِرُونَ هَذَا يَوْمٌ عَسِرٌ (٨)

In the name of God, the Most-Gracious, the Ever-Merciful.

The hour1 has arrived [of which they had been warned] and the moon is cleft asunder.2 [But they will not profess faith] and whatever sign they see, they will only evade it and remark: “This is a magic of the past.”3 [Thus, this is actually what happened] and they denied [now as well] and followed their fancies4 and [We did not seize them immediately because to Us] every matter has an appointed time. The anecdotes of the past have reached them which have [for them] a lot of lessons and profound wisdom. But of what use are these warnings [to these rebellious people]? For this reason, ignore them and wait for the day5 in which a summoner will summon them to a thing very undesirable. Their eyes shall be downcast [on that day]. They shall come out of their graves running towards the summoner as if they are locusts scattered about. At that time, these disbelievers will cry out: “A very difficult day has come!” (1-8)


كَذَّبَتْ قَبْلَهُمْ قَوْمُ نُوحٍ فَكَذَّبُوا عَبْدَنَا وَقَالُوا مَجْنُونٌ وَازْدُجِرَ (٩) فَدَعَا رَبَّهُ أَنِّي مَغْلُوبٌ فَانتَصِرْ (١٠) فَفَتَحْنَا أَبْوَابَ السَّمَاء بِمَاء مُّنْهَمِرٍ (١١) وَفَجَّرْنَا الْأَرْضَ عُيُونًا فَالْتَقَى الْمَاء عَلَى أَمْرٍ قَدْ قُدِرَ (١٢) وَحَمَلْنَاهُ عَلَى ذَاتِ أَلْوَاحٍ وَدُسُرٍ (١٣) تَجْرِي بِأَعْيُنِنَا جَزَاء لِّمَن كَانَ كُفِرَ (١٤) وَلَقَد تَّرَكْنَاهَا آيَةً فَهَلْ مِن مُّدَّكِرٍ (١٥) فَكَيْفَ كَانَ عَذَابِي وَنُذُرِ (١٦) وَلَقَدْ يَسَّرْنَا الْقُرْآنَ لِلذِّكْرِ فَهَلْ مِن مُّدَّكِرٍ (١٧)

Before them,6 the folks of Noah also [similarly] denied. They rejected Our servant7 and said that he was a madman,8 and he was badly scolded. At last, he pleaded to his Lord: “I am vanquished; so You take revenge from them.” It was then that We opened the gates of the heavens with stormy rain pouring forth, and caused the earth to cleave asunder [in such a manner that] springs burst forth all over.9 Then the waters [of the heavens and the earth] met at the point decreed and We carried Noah on that which was made of planks and nails,10 which sailed under Our protection: this We did as a recompense for him who had been slighted. And We made this anecdote an [exemplary] sign. So is there anyone who would take heed? Behold how was My punishment and how was My warning?11 We have made this Qur’ān very appropriate for reminding.12 So is there anyone who shall take heed?!! (9-17)


كَذَّبَتْ عَادٌ فَكَيْفَ كَانَ عَذَابِي وَنُذُرِ (١٨) إِنَّا أَرْسَلْنَا عَلَيْهِمْ رِيحًا صَرْصَرًا فِي يَوْمِ نَحْسٍ مُّسْتَمِرٍّ (١٩) تَنزِعُ النَّاسَ كَأَنَّهُمْ أَعْجَازُ نَخْلٍ مُّنقَعِرٍ (٢٠) فَكَيْفَ كَانَ عَذَابِي وَنُذُرِ (٢١) وَلَقَدْ يَسَّرْنَا الْقُرْآنَ لِلذِّكْرِ فَهَلْ مِن مُّدَّكِرٍ (٢٢)

[Similarly] the ‘Ād also rejected; so observe how was My punishment and how was My warning. We let loose on them a stormy wind at a day of perpetual bad omen13 which plucked out people as if they were uprooted trunks of palm-trees. So see how was My punishment and how was My warning. We have made this Qur’ān very appropriate for reminding. So is there anyone who shall take heed?!! (18-22)


كَذَّبَتْ ثَمُودُ بِالنُّذُرِ (٢٣) فَقَالُوا أَبَشَرًا مِّنَّا وَاحِدًا نَّتَّبِعُهُ إِنَّا إِذًا لَّفِي ضَلَالٍ وَسُعُرٍ (٢٤) أَؤُلْقِيَ الذِّكْرُ عَلَيْهِ مِن بَيْنِنَا بَلْ هُوَ كَذَّابٌ أَشِرٌ (٢٥) سَيَعْلَمُونَ غَدًا مَّنِ الْكَذَّابُ الْأَشِرُ (٢٦) إِنَّا مُرْسِلُو النَّاقَةِ فِتْنَةً لَّهُمْ فَارْتَقِبْهُمْ وَاصْطَبِرْ (٢٧) وَنَبِّئْهُمْ أَنَّ الْمَاء قِسْمَةٌ بَيْنَهُمْ كُلُّ شِرْبٍ مُّحْتَضَرٌ (٢٨) فَنَادَوْا صَاحِبَهُمْ فَتَعَاطَى فَعَقَرَ (٢٩) فَكَيْفَ كَانَ عَذَابِي وَنُذُرِ (٣٠) إِنَّا أَرْسَلْنَا عَلَيْهِمْ صَيْحَةً وَاحِدَةً فَكَانُوا كَهَشِيمِ الْمُحْتَظِرِ (٣١) وَلَقَدْ يَسَّرْنَا الْقُرْآنَ لِلذِّكْرِ فَهَلْ مِن مُّدَّكِرٍ (٣٢)

The Thamūd also rejected this warning. They said: “Are we to follow a person who belongs to us? If we do so, we shall [in fact] be clearly straying and end up in Hell.14 Did he alone among us receive this Reminder? [No], in fact, he is indeed a liar, a boaster. Tomorrow [then] they shall know who the liar and the boaster is. We are sending a she-camel as a test for them. So keep a watch on them and have patience, and inform them that the water has been divided between them and the she-camel. [Now] everyone shall come on the day of his turn.15 At this, they cried out to their leader; so he came forward and hamstrung the she-camel. Then observe how was My punishment and how was My warning. We sent upon them a single shout16 and they became like the trampled hedge of a sheep-fold builder.17 We have made this Qur’ān very appropriate for reminding. So is there anyone who shall take heed?!! (23-32)


كَذَّبَتْ قَوْمُ لُوطٍ بِالنُّذُرِ (٣٣) إِنَّا أَرْسَلْنَا عَلَيْهِمْ حَاصِبًا إِلَّا آلَ لُوطٍ نَّجَّيْنَاهُم بِسَحَرٍ (٣٤) نِعْمَةً مِّنْ عِندِنَا كَذَلِكَ نَجْزِي مَن شَكَرَ (٣٥) وَلَقَدْ أَنذَرَهُم بَطْشَتَنَا فَتَمَارَوْا بِالنُّذُرِ (٣٦) وَلَقَدْ رَاوَدُوهُ عَن ضَيْفِهِ فَطَمَسْنَا أَعْيُنَهُمْ فَذُوقُوا عَذَابِي وَنُذُرِ (٣٧) وَلَقَدْ صَبَّحَهُم بُكْرَةً عَذَابٌ مُّسْتَقِرٌّ (٣٨) فَذُوقُوا عَذَابِي وَنُذُرِ (٣٩) وَلَقَدْ يَسَّرْنَا الْقُرْآنَ لِلذِّكْرِ فَهَلْ مِن مُّدَّكِرٍ (٤٠) وَلَقَدْ جَاء آلَ فِرْعَوْنَ النُّذُرُ (٤١) كَذَّبُوا بِآيَاتِنَا كُلِّهَا فَأَخَذْنَاهُمْ أَخْذَ عَزِيزٍ مُّقْتَدِرٍ (٤٢)

The people of Lot also rejected the warning. So, We unleashed on them a stone-charged whirlwind; only the family of Lot survived, whom, as a special favour, We bailed out at dawn. Thus do We reward those who are grateful. Lot had indeed informed them of Our grasp, but they only made foolish objections on his warning. And they urged him to hand over his guests to them; so We blinded their eyes18 that taste My wrath and My warning. At daybreak, an abiding punishment seized them. So taste My punishment and My warning. We have made this Qur’ān very appropriate for reminding. So is there anyone who shall take heed?!! (33-40)


أَكُفَّارُكُمْ خَيْرٌ مِّنْ أُوْلَئِكُمْ أَمْ لَكُم بَرَاءةٌ فِي الزُّبُرِ (٤٣) أَمْ يَقُولُونَ نَحْنُ جَمِيعٌ مُّنتَصِرٌ (٤٤) سَيُهْزَمُ الْجَمْعُ وَيُوَلُّونَ الدُّبُرَ (٤٥) بَلِ السَّاعَةُ مَوْعِدُهُمْ وَالسَّاعَةُ أَدْهَى وَأَمَرُّ (٤٦)

To the Pharaoh’s people also came this warning But they rejected all Our signs;19  so We grasped them with the grasp of One Mighty, Powerful. (41-42)

[Then] are the disbelievers of your nation better than those of the other nations or is there an acquittal written for you in the scriptures? Do they claim: “We are a group who has the ability to fight.” [Listen up!] Their group shall soon be routed and they will be turning and fleeing away.20  (43-45)

[No!] in fact, the actual time in which the promise made to them shall be fulfilled is the Day of Judgement, and the Day of Judgement will be most grievous and most bitter [for these disbelievers].21 (46)



إِنَّ الْمُجْرِمِينَ فِي ضَلَالٍ وَسُعُرٍ (٤٧) يَوْمَ يُسْحَبُونَ فِي النَّارِ عَلَى وُجُوهِهِمْ ذُوقُوا مَسَّ سَقَرَ (٤٨) إِنَّا كُلَّ شَيْءٍ خَلَقْنَاهُ بِقَدَرٍ (٤٩) وَمَا أَمْرُنَا إِلَّا وَاحِدَةٌ كَلَمْحٍ بِالْبَصَرِ (٥٠) وَلَقَدْ أَهْلَكْنَا أَشْيَاعَكُمْ فَهَلْ مِن مُّدَّكِرٍ (٥١) وَكُلُّ شَيْءٍ فَعَلُوهُ فِي الزُّبُرِ (٥٢) وَكُلُّ صَغِيرٍ وَكَبِيرٍ مُسْتَطَرٌ (٥٣) إِنَّ الْمُتَّقِينَ فِي جَنَّاتٍ وَنَهَرٍ (٥٤) فِي مَقْعَدِ صِدْقٍ عِندَ مَلِيكٍ مُّقْتَدِرٍ (٥٥)

Indeed, these wrongdoers are in great error and shall definitely end up in Hell.22 They should remember the Day when they shall be dragged face-downwards into the flames [of Hell].23 Taste now the sensation of Hell. (47-48)

[They should not make haste.] We have created everything according to a measure. And Our directive will only be one directive that will be fulfilled in the blink of an eye. We have [in this manner] destroyed nations like yourselves [before this].24 So is there anyone who will take warning from their fate?! (49-51)

Everything they have done is recorded in registers and every matter, small or great, is noted down. (52-53)

[On the other hand,] those who fear God shall dwell in [the bliss of] gardens and rivers,25 a place of true honour,26 before a very Mighty King. (54-55)


Sūrah Rahmān

بسم الله الرحمن الرحيم

الرَّحْمَنُ (١) عَلَّمَ الْقُرْآنَ (٢) خَلَقَ الْإِنسَانَ (٣) عَلَّمَهُ الْبَيَانَ (٤) الشَّمْسُ وَالْقَمَرُ بِحُسْبَانٍ (٥) وَالنَّجْمُ وَالشَّجَرُ يَسْجُدَانِ (٦) وَالسَّمَاء رَفَعَهَا وَوَضَعَ الْمِيزَانَ (٧)  أَلَّا تَطْغَوْا فِي الْمِيزَانِ (٨) وَأَقِيمُوا الْوَزْنَ بِالْقِسْطِ وَلَا تُخْسِرُوا الْمِيزَانَ (٩) وَالْأَرْضَ وَضَعَهَا لِلْأَنَامِ (١٠) فِيهَا فَاكِهَةٌ وَالنَّخْلُ ذَاتُ الْأَكْمَامِ (11) وَالْحَبُّ ذُو الْعَصْفِ وَالرَّيْحَانُ (12) فَبِأَيِّ آلَاء رَبِّكُمَا تُكَذِّبَانِ (13)

In the name of God, the Most-Gracious, the Ever-Merciful.

The Merciful has taught the Qur’ān [because] He has created man; taught him speech.27 (1-4)

[You want a sign; so observe] the sun and the moon pursue their ordered course. And the stars and the trees also bow down in adoration. And He raised high the sky and placed the balance in it so that you too [in your circle of authority] should not transgress that balance. And weigh justly and do not measure less.28 (5-9)

And He laid out the earth for His creatures. In it are fruits and date-palms whose fruits are in coverings and chaff-covered grain and scented flowers also29 – So O Jinn and Men! Which of your Lord’s majesties would you deny?30 (10-13)


خَلَقَ الْإِنسَانَ مِن صَلْصَالٍ كَالْفَخَّارِ (14) وَخَلَقَ الْجَانَّ مِن مَّارِجٍ مِّن نَّارٍ (15) فَبِأَيِّ آلَاء رَبِّكُمَا تُكَذِّبَانِ (16) رَبُّ الْمَشْرِقَيْنِ وَرَبُّ الْمَغْرِبَيْنِ (17) فَبِأَيِّ آلَاء رَبِّكُمَا تُكَذِّبَانِ (18) مَرَجَ الْبَحْرَيْنِ يَلْتَقِيَانِ (19) بَيْنَهُمَا بَرْزَخٌ لَّا يَبْغِيَانِ (20) فَبِأَيِّ آلَاء رَبِّكُمَا تُكَذِّبَانِ (21)

He created man from clay which rings like its dry pieces,31 and the jinn from the flame of fire. So O Jinn and Men! Which of your Lord’s majesties would you deny? 32 (14-16)

He alone is the Lord of both borders of the East and He alone is the Lord of both borders of the West.33 So O Jinn and Men! Which of your Lord’s majesties would you deny?34 (17-18)

He has let loose two oceans: they meet one another; yet between them is a barrier which they cannot cross.35 So O Jinn and Men! Which of your Lord’s majesties would you deny?36 (19-21)


يَخْرُجُ مِنْهُمَا اللُّؤْلُؤُ وَالْمَرْجَانُ (22) فَبِأَيِّ آلَاء رَبِّكُمَا تُكَذِّبَانِ (23) وَلَهُ الْجَوَارِ الْمُنشَآتُ فِي الْبَحْرِ كَالْأَعْلَامِ (24) فَبِأَيِّ آلَاء رَبِّكُمَا تُكَذِّبَانِ (25) كُلُّ مَنْ عَلَيْهَا فَانٍ (26) وَيَبْقَى وَجْهُ رَبِّكَ ذُو الْجَلَالِ وَالْإِكْرَامِ (27) فَبِأَيِّ آلَاء رَبِّكُمَا تُكَذِّبَانِ (28) يَسْأَلُهُ مَن فِي السَّمَاوَاتِ وَالْأَرْضِ كُلَّ يَوْمٍ هُوَ فِي شَأْنٍ (29) فَبِأَيِّ آلَاء رَبِّكُمَا تُكَذِّبَانِ (30)

Pearls and corals come out from both.37 So O Jinn and Men! Which of your Lord’s majesties would you deny? (22-23)

To Him belong these ships which are like mountains rising above the ocean.38 So O Jinn and Men! Which of your Lord’s majesties would you deny? (24-25)

All that lives on the earth is destined to die and only the glorious and majestic person of your Lord will abide forever. So O Jinn and Men! Which of your Lord’s majesties would you deny?39 (26-28)

Whatever is in the heavens and the earth ask for their needs from Him alone.40 At all times, His majesty has a newer manifestation. So O Jinn and Men! Which of your Lord’s majesties would you deny?41 (29-30)


 سَنَفْرُغُ لَكُمْ أَيُّهَا الثَّقَلَانِ (31) فَبِأَيِّ آلَاء رَبِّكُمَا تُكَذِّبَانِ (32) يَا مَعْشَرَ الْجِنِّ وَالْإِنسِ إِنِ اسْتَطَعْتُمْ أَن تَنفُذُوا مِنْ أَقْطَارِ السَّمَاوَاتِ وَالْأَرْضِ فَانفُذُوا لَا تَنفُذُونَ إِلَّا بِسُلْطَانٍ (33) فَبِأَيِّ آلَاء رَبِّكُمَا تُكَذِّبَانِ (34) يُرْسَلُ عَلَيْكُمَا شُوَاظٌ مِّن نَّارٍ وَنُحَاسٌ فَلَا تَنتَصِرَانِ (35) فَبِأَيِّ آلَاء رَبِّكُمَا تُكَذِّبَانِ (36)

O Heavy groups! We are about to find time for you!42 Then [We will see] which of your Lord’s majesties would you deny? O Groups of Mankind and Jinn! If you have power to escape from the confines of the heavens and earth, then try to escape! You shall not be able to do so; this needs permission.43 So which of your Lord’s majesties would you deny? A flame of fire shall be hurled at you and [molten] brass44 and you would not be able to shield yourself. So which of your Lord’s majesties would you deny?45 (31-36)


فَإِذَا انشَقَّتِ السَّمَاء فَكَانَتْ وَرْدَةً كَالدِّهَانِ (37) فَبِأَيِّ آلَاء رَبِّكُمَا تُكَذِّبَانِ (38) فَيَوْمَئِذٍ لَّا يُسْأَلُ عَن ذَنبِهِ إِنسٌ وَلَا جَانٌّ (39) فَبِأَيِّ آلَاء رَبِّكُمَا تُكَذِّبَانِ (40) يُعْرَفُ الْمُجْرِمُونَ بِسِيمَاهُمْ فَيُؤْخَذُ بِالنَّوَاصِي وَالْأَقْدَامِ (41) فَبِأَيِّ آلَاء رَبِّكُمَا تُكَذِّبَانِ (42) هَذِهِ جَهَنَّمُ الَّتِي يُكَذِّبُ بِهَا الْمُجْرِمُونَ (43) يَطُوفُونَ بَيْنَهَا وَبَيْنَ حَمِيمٍ آنٍ (44) فَبِأَيِّ آلَاء رَبِّكُمَا تُكَذِّبَانِ (45)

And [what will happen at the time] when the sky splits asunder, and reddens like skin peeled off? [At that time] O Jinn and Men! Which of your Lord’s majesties would you deny? On that day, there will be no need to ask either man or jinn of his sins.46  So which of your Lord’s majesties would you deny? The wrongdoers will be recognized [there] by their signs; then they shall be seized by their forelocks and their feet [and thrown in Hell]. So which of your Lord’s majesties would you deny? This is the same Hell which these wrongdoers had kept denying. [Now] they shall circle between it and its boiling water.47  So O Jinn and Men! Which of your Lord’s majesties would you deny? (37-45)


وَلِمَنْ خَافَ مَقَامَ رَبِّهِ جَنَّتَانِ (46) فَبِأَيِّ آلَاء رَبِّكُمَا تُكَذِّبَانِ (47) ذَوَاتَا أَفْنَانٍ (48) فَبِأَيِّ آلَاء رَبِّكُمَا تُكَذِّبَانِ (49) فِيهِمَا عَيْنَانِ تَجْرِيَانِ (50) فَبِأَيِّ آلَاء رَبِّكُمَا تُكَذِّبَانِ (51) فِيهِمَا مِن كُلِّ فَاكِهَةٍ زَوْجَانِ (52) فَبِأَيِّ آلَاء رَبِّكُمَا تُكَذِّبَانِ (53) مُتَّكِئِينَ عَلَى فُرُشٍ بَطَائِنُهَا مِنْ إِسْتَبْرَقٍ وَجَنَى الْجَنَّتَيْنِ دَانٍ (54) فَبِأَيِّ آلَاء رَبِّكُمَا تُكَذِّبَانِ (55) فِيهِنَّ قَاصِرَاتُ الطَّرْفِ لَمْ يَطْمِثْهُنَّ إِنسٌ قَبْلَهُمْ وَلَا جَانٌّ (56) فَبِأَيِّ آلَاء رَبِّكُمَا تُكَذِّبَانِ (57) كَأَنَّهُنَّ الْيَاقُوتُ وَالْمَرْجَانُ (58) فَبِأَيِّ آلَاء رَبِّكُمَا تُكَذِّبَانِ (59) هَلْ جَزَاء الْإِحْسَانِ إِلَّا الْإِحْسَانُ (60) فَبِأَيِّ آلَاء رَبِّكُمَا تُكَذِّبَانِ (61)


[This is the recompense of these wrongdoers.] And for those who feared being brought into the presence of their Lord, there shall be two orchards. So O Jinn and Men! Which of your Lord’s majesties would you deny?48 Both will have abundant branches. So which of your Lord’s majesties would you deny? Each will be watered by two fountains. So which of your Lord’s majesties would you deny? In them, each fruit will be of a unique type. So which of your Lord’s majesties would you deny? They shall sit on floors reclining on cushions lined with thick brocade,49 and the branches of both orchards will be bending over [because of fruits].50 So which of your Lord’s majesties would you deny? In them51 will be [maidens having] bashful eyes whom neither man nor jinn will have touched before. So which of your Lord’s majesties would you deny? Houris like rubies and corals. So which of your Lord’s blessings would you deny? What can be the reward of virtue except virtue?52 So which of your Lord’s majesties would you deny? (46-61)


وَمِن دُونِهِمَا جَنَّتَانِ (62) فَبِأَيِّ آلَاء رَبِّكُمَا تُكَذِّبَانِ (63) مُدْهَامَّتَانِ (64) فَبِأَيِّ آلَاء رَبِّكُمَا تُكَذِّبَانِ (65) فِيهِمَا عَيْنَانِ نَضَّاخَتَانِ (66) فَبِأَيِّ آلَاء رَبِّكُمَا تُكَذِّبَانِ (67) فِيهِمَا فَاكِهَةٌ وَنَخْلٌ وَرُمَّانٌ (68) فَبِأَيِّ آلَاء رَبِّكُمَا تُكَذِّبَانِ (69) فِيهِنَّ خَيْرَاتٌ حِسَانٌ (70) فَبِأَيِّ آلَاء رَبِّكُمَا تُكَذِّبَانِ (71) حُورٌ مَّقْصُورَاتٌ فِي الْخِيَامِ (72) فَبِأَيِّ آلَاء رَبِّكُمَا تُكَذِّبَانِ (73) لَمْ يَطْمِثْهُنَّ إِنسٌ قَبْلَهُمْ وَلَا جَانٌّ (74) فَبِأَيِّ آلَاء رَبِّكُمَا تُكَذِّبَانِ (75) مُتَّكِئِينَ عَلَى رَفْرَفٍ خُضْرٍ وَعَبْقَرِيٍّ حِسَانٍ (76) فَبِأَيِّ آلَاء رَبِّكُمَا تُكَذِّبَانِ (77) تَبَارَكَ اسْمُ رَبِّكَ ذِي الْجَلَالِ وَالْإِكْرَامِ (78)

And besides these, there shall be two other orchards.53 So which of your Lord’s majesties would you deny? Both will be dense and luxuriantly green. So which of your Lord’s majesties would you deny? Two gushing fountains shall flow in each. So which of your Lord’s majesties would you deny? Each will have fruits, dates and pomegranates.54 So which of your Lord’s majesties would you deny? In each there shall be wives, noble and gorgeous. So which of your Lord’s majesties would you deny? Houris living in tents. So which of your Lord’s majesties would you deny? Whom neither man nor jinn will have touched before. So how many of your Lord’s majesties would you deny? They shall recline on green sheet cloths and unique carpets.55 So which of your Lord’s majesties would you deny? Blessed is the name of your Lord, the Lord of majesty and glory! [56 (62-78)




10th September 2009

(Translated by Dr Shehzad Saleem)








1. This refers to the Hour of Judgement which for the rejecters of a messenger of God begins with the punishment which necessarily visits them if they persist on his rejection.

2. This is a sign of the Hour of Judgement with which they have been warned. It is mentioned in verse fifty three of Sūrah Ha Mīm al-Sajdah that in order to strengthen the warnings sounded by Muhammad (sws) and to conclusively communicate the truth to his people, the Almighty will soon show extra-ordinary signs to them that will appear not only in the world around them but that within them. It is evident from this verse under discussion that one of those signs manifested itself in the form of the moon cleaving asunder. Imām Amīn Ahsan Islāhī writes:

It is not necessary that a messenger present such signs as miracles; they can appear without any proclamation and without throwing any challenge. It is not even necessary that the disbelievers demand the specific sign they are shown; it could be shown to them without their demand merely to dispel the doubts created by them. The reason that the disbelievers regarded the Hereafter to be far-fetched was that they reckoned it impossible that one day the whole universe would be wrecked and destroyed. Their question cited by the Qur’ān regarding the mountains shows that they regarded them to be eternal and everlasting. By showing the sign of the moon cleaving asunder, the Almighty has informed them that none of the objects of this universe, however huge it may be, is independent or immortal; everything is subservient to His directive; He can destroy it whenever He wants to. (Amīn Ahsan Islāhī, Tadabbur-i Qur’ān, vol. 8, 91)

3. This statement is a clear testimony to the fact that this incident of the moon cleaving asunder is not some news of the future; it is in fact an event that took place in the time of the Prophet Muhammad (sws) on the basis of which the Qur’ān has argued in favour of the punishment that visits the nation of messenger if it deliberately denies the truth as well as in the favour of the Day of Judgement, Hence if the expression  is translated as “the moon will cleave asunder,” then after this, this statement will be totally out of place. Thus it is evident from various narratives that this incident took place about five years before migration. It was the night of a full moon; the moon had just appeared when suddenly it cleaved asunder and part of it was seen to be on one side of the hillock in front and the second on the other side of it. People saw this event which lasted  just for a second after which both parts merged back. At that time, the Prophet (sws) was in Minā; he asked people to see this sign of God and be witnesses to it. The Quraysh, however, tried to deny it by regarding it to be magic. (Bukhārī, nos. 3656, 4583; Musnad Ahmad, no. 16786). The Qur’ān commented on this attitude of theirs by saying that these disbelievers will always state that this is a magic of the olden times. By this comment, they want to give this impression that there is no novelty in this magic; it is of same genre as the one shown by magicians of the past and which continues to be transferred to the present times.

4. The cause of their rejection is stated here: they have become slaves to their fancy and hence think that if they accept reward and punishment they would have to give up these desires; hence they reject and fashion very lame excuses to deny the Prophet (sws).

5. The actual words are: فَتَوَلَّ عَنْهُمْ يَوْمَ يَدْعُ الدَّاعِ. It is evident from the construction of the sentence that the word تَوَلَّ (turn away) encompasses the meaning of إنْتَطِرْ (wait). I have given due regard to this in the translation.

6. From here onwards the argument presented rather concisely in verse four is explained. These are incidents which depict the worldly retribution of the immediate addressees of the messengers of God if they deny their respective messenger. These incidents are cited here in chronological order.

7. The actual word is: عَبْدَنَا. The affection and love this address from God encompasses for Noah (sws) needs no explanation.

8. The implication is that this person is possessed with punishment and the day of judgement. He cannot see anything else; he keeps dreaming of these events.

9. These are the details of the storm which visited Noah’s people once they had intentionally denied the truth conclusively delivered to them.

10. There is great eloquence in calling Noah’s ark by this expression. Imām Amīn Ahsan Islāhī has explained this. He writes:

… Mentioning it here with its components, in my opinion, is to express God’s power, wisdom, affection, mercy and majesty. The implication is that the Almighty saved those He wanted to by logs fixed together with nails from the storm which routed the whole nation and from which not a single soul survived. In other words, the real thing is God’s mercy and affection. If they are with a person, then a few logs can save them from Noah’s deluge, and if they desert a person, the greatest of war ships are flattened in the blink of any eye, and the strongest of dams are blown away like straws by the power of the deluge. (Amīn Ahsan Islāhī, Tadabbur-i Qur’ān, vol. 8, 98)

11. The actual word is: نُذُر. It is a noun from the verbal noun: إِنْذَار. It means: threat, admonition and warning.

12. The actual word is: يَسَّرْنَا. It does not merely mean to make something easy; it also means to make something appropriate for a specific objective and to fully prepare it by embellishing it with all the required means and needs. The implication is that the Almighty has revealed this Qur’ān for reminding and educating people which is in their eloquent and lucid Arabic language. It is being revealed gradually so that it can be benefitted from with full concentration and devotion; some of its sūrahs are concise and others comprehensive; this is because those who want to be instructed in a concise manner can full grasp them and those like to be instructed in a comprehensive way are also afforded the opportunity; a single subject is re-iterated in so many different and unique styles that no ambiguity remains in any matter; the sūrahs are arranged in such a sequence that this sequence in itself has become a key to understanding them. So why do they not benefit from this great favour and blessing of the Almighty? Why do they want that instead of this a grievous punishment should visit them?

13. The actual word used for “stormy wind” is صَرْصَر. It is a tempestuous wind which blows in winter. “A day of perpetual bad omen” does not refer to some specific day. According to linguistic principles of Arabic, it refers to a certain time period. Thus, at another place, the words used are: أَيَّامِ نَحِسَاتٍ and at other places it is specified that this stormy wind blew on them for seven nights and eight days. The word مُّسْتَمِرٍّ is pointing to this very fact.

14. Here the Thamūd reacted by saying the same words to their prophet, Sālih: you say that if we do not accept your calls, we will be in error and will be cast into Hell; the fact of the matter is that if we accept your calls, we will then be in error and will be flung into Hell.

15. After selecting a she-camel for the task, the Almighty asked Sālih (sws) to inform his people that turns had been fixed to drink water; no one should stop the she-camel selected by God from drinking when her turn comes. If she was harmed in any way, then this would be a prelude to God’s punishment. Imām Amīn Ahsan Islāhī writes:

… They were made to undergo this trial so that the evil in them was exposed and the extent of their rebelliousness was known to all. Obviously, after this warning that this she-camel was a sign of God’s wrath only those people could have had the audacity to harm it who themselves were audacious enough to even harm their messenger. It is this extent of a nation’s rebelliousness and arrogance after which it becomes worthy of divine punishment. After this, nothing remains to conclusively prove the truth to them. (Amīn Ahsan Islāhī, Tadabbur-i Qur’ān, vol. 8, 98)

16. The actual word is: صَيْحَةٌ. In Sūrah Dhāriyāt, the word صَاعِقَةٌ is used to convey this meaning. It is evident from the Qur’ān that it comprehensively signifies a tempestuous wind and a storm of lightning and thunder. The Qur’ān has detailed this out in verses twenty four and twenty five of Sūrah Ahqāf.

17. People who keep livestock generally make a hedge of wooden pieces and bushes to protect their herds. Because of rain and continuous trampling by the animals, such a hedge is ultimately crushed to powder. The trampled corpses of the people of Lot are compared to this powder.

18. This was a prelude to the punishment. When in spite of the pleadings of Lot (sws) they did not desist, their eyes were blinded and in this manner the eyes that lacked vision and understanding were deprived of eye-sight as well. In the Bible, this incident is recorded in the following words:

They kept bringing pressure on Lot and moved forward to break down the door. But the men [ie. the angels] inside reached out and pulled Lot back into the house and shut the door. Then they struck the men who were at the door of the house, young and old, with blindness so that they could not find the door. (Genesis, 19:9-11)

19. This refers to all the signs of warnings which manifested themselves at the hands of Moses (sws) in Egypt. All their details are found in the Bible. The Qur’ān too has referred to them at other instances.

20. This is a very clear prediction made years before the migration to Madīnah and it materialized word for word in the very manner it was made. After the truth had been conclusively conveyed to the Quraysh, this scene was witnessed for the first time in the battle of Badr. After this as well never could the Quraysh win any battles against the powerful armies of God until Makkah was conquered and people saw them fleeing away from every place from their very eyes.

21. ie., these people shall encounter the humiliation and destruction mentioned above in accordance with the established practice of God because they have denied the messenger of God; however, the warning that is being sounded to them shall actually materialize on the Day of Judgement that will be very severe for them.

22. The actual word is سُعُر. It is in the plural form. Further ahead, the word جَنَّاتٍ is also in the plural. The purpose of such plural is to point to the vastness or to its sides and sections.

23. This is a picture of great humiliation. One can imagine from this portrayal the situation these arrogant will face on the Day of Judgement because of their haughtiness.

24. The reference is to nations like the Quraysh whose anecdotes are mentioned before.

25. The actual words are: فِي مَقْعَدِ صِدْقٍ. Here after the letter فِي a governed noun (mudāf) is suppressed as per conventional linguistic principles of Arabic. I have expressed it in the translation.

26. The actual words are: فِي مَقْعَدِ صِدْقٍ. Here the annexure of صِدْق is referring to the honour of that place as well as to its perpetuity and eternal nature.

27. ie., the Almighty is absolute mercy. He created man as a human being and not as an animal and blessed him with the faculty of speech. This faculty shows that man has intellect and understanding, and can distinguish between good and evil; he can derive principles from parts and vice versa and simulate parts from principles. He has the ability to reason, infer and form opinions. After this, it was essential that he be spoken to, and this is what His Lord did, and instead of lashing His punishment on his back, God has arranged to teach him through the Qur’ān.

28. The implication is that this whole universe by its very existence bears witness to the justice and fairness in all matters relating to religion as well as all worldly affairs towards which the Qur’ān is calling man and warning him of the consequences of deviating from it.  This universe is telling us that all heavenly bodies are obedient to the directive of God and follow the poise and balance on which God has created them. This entails and should entail that man too should adhere to justice and fairness and bear witness to the truth and not defraud others at any place in God’s world. Otherwise they will bear its consequences not only in this world but also in the Hereafter. Imām Amīn Ahsan Islāhī writes:

… It is evident from this that justly weighing and measuring is a directive which has great significance. By its nature, it is a corollary of the system of justice on which the Almighty has created this world. It is also evident from this that a nation which disrupts and disobeys this directive creates disorder in the whole society. (Amīn Ahsan Islāhī, Tadabbur-i Qur’ān, vol. 8, 130)

29. After the heavens, attention is now directed at the resources of providence found in the earth. The implication is that people look at the elaborate arrangement found around them and still do not recognize their Lord and think that they will go scot free and not be held accountable. It is thus said that the Almighty has not created provisions to merely quench hunger; at the same time, He has made arrangements to satisfy our aesthetic taste, savour our taste buds with various types of sumptuous foods and please our sight through various embellishments and adornments. We need to observe each and every fruit and its covering to gauge the fact that whatever He has given us has so much beauty, thoroughness and novelty in it. Amīn Ahsan Islāhī writes:

… The word used for the heavens is رَفَعَ and in contrast the word وَضَعَ is very aptly used for the earth. The implication is that the heavens were raised high like a roof and the earth was spread out like a floor so that this arrangement could become a comfortable abode for His creatures. Moreover, just as the heavens were decked with lamps like the sun, the moon and the stars so that this house was provided with light and heat, similarly various types of fruit, grain and flowers were provided so that its residents obtain their sustenance from them and satisfy their taste-buds and the flowers become a means of providing them with sweet scent and scenic beauty. (Amīn Ahsan Islāhī, Tadabbur-i Qur’ān, vol. 8, 130)

30. The actual words are: فَبِأَيِّ آلَاء رَبِّكُمَا تُكَذِّبَانِ.  Imām Hamīd al-Dīn al-Farāhī in his Mufradāt al-Qur’ān while citing examples from classical Arabic poetry has shown that the word آلَاء that occurs in this verse does not merely mean “favours”; it has a wider connotation and all meanings of the category of favours, power, signs, marvels, feats and miracles are included in it. In English, the word “majesty” to some extent covers all these meanings.

Besides, human beings, the jinn too have been addressed in these verses because at that time the latter had begun to pay heed to the call of the Prophet (sws). The Qur’ān has specified this at other instances. It can be adduced on this basis that just as the pious among them enthusiastically corroborate the Qur’ān, the evil among them must have come to the help of the Quraysh in their animosity; hence, the Qur’ān has also reprimanded them.

31. This is a mention of that phase of the creation of a human being in which once it had taken its final shape after being nourished in the womb of the earth the stinking clay dried up like the covering of an egg so that it may break and the perfected human being may emerge from it.

32. ie., how is it impossible for the Almighty Who has created such extra-ordinary creatures from potsherds of clay and the flame of fire to raise them to life again after they die whenever He wants to. If they deny this recreation, then it is as if they deny the marvels of His power in this first creation. They should think how can they deny?

33. The actual words areمَشْرِقَيْنِ  and مَغْرِبَيْنِ. They are duals. In the Arabic language, just as a dual expresses number, it also expresses vastness. Here, these words occur in this latter meaning, and have been translated accordingly.

34. If men and jinn reject the one who is the sole sovereign of the East and the West and also reject being presented before Him for accountability, then they should contemplate what they are rejecting.

35. This situation arises at very place in which a big river links into a sea; thus sour and sweat waters strike against each other; however, the all-knowing and all-powerful Lord inserts a barrier between them that in spite of meeting one another both continue to flow with their original traits.

36. ie., how do they think that it would not be possible for the Almighty Whose power manifests itself in such marvels to not create them again? If they deny Him, then they should think that what awesome power and profound wisdom they deny.

37. ie., one river is sour and the other sweet and God produces from both these extra-ordinary things of  adornment for them.

38. ie., these ships that man has made belong to God alone because they have come into existence through the means and resources as well as the skill provided by Him. Moreover, it is He who turns the raging sea into a smooth highway for them and they are able to sail here and there.

39. The implication is that whether they listen to the warning of the Qur’ān or not, this warning will materialize one day and only the majestic and exalted person of God will continue to exist. So they should speak up: Who shall they dare deny on that day?

40. The actual word is: سُؤالٌ. It is used to connote its consequence: since they actually receive from God from whomever they may demand, hence they actually demand from Him.

41. The implication is that it is not that after creating the world, its Creator became aloof from it; He is, in fact, administering this universe and if eyes really have vision, people can witness His majesty in newer manifestations every moment. Even after this if they create confusions, then they should think who they are rejecting and which of His majesties are they denying.

42. Jinnkind and mankind are addressed as heavy groups. The purpose is to delineate the fact that however heavy their armies of rebellious people may become, they will blow away like straws by the wind of God. It is thus said that very soon their respite will end and they will be caught and brought to the court of the Almighty. He is about to confine His attention to this task whilst leaving aside others.

43. The actual word is: سُلْطَانٌ. It means “authority and control” and also means “permission”. Here it is used in this second meaning. In other words, in order to cross the confines of the earth and the heavens God’s permission is needed, and this can only be granted by God; no other person can issue this to them.

44. These are the components of the shooting stars (also called meteors) about which the Qur’ān has specified at various instances that they are hurled at the devils when they try to cross their limits. One of their types is Siderolites. It is evident from their chemical analysis that besides iron and stone, the ingredients of bronze and brass are also found in it.

45. The implication is that in this unfathomable universe they see this system of protection for them and their own defenselesness against it and yet not acknowledge the exaltedness of God. They should then speak up: will they continue to deny facts after ignoring all these powers of God.

46. The implication is that hands and feet in fact every root of a person’s hair will bear witness to his sins. There will no need to investigate them.

47. Portrayed here is the extreme state of helplessness these wrongdoers will encounter in Hell. When its fire will set them ablaze they will run towards fountains of water; but there they will only find boiling water which will not quench anyone’s thirst. Their lives will be spent in this movement.

48. The implication is that when these favours will be given by God to His righteous servants who were jeered and made fun of in the world, these rejecters should speak up whether at that time they will thoroughly regret what they did or deny God’s favours.

49. In other words, if the inner lining is of thick brocade one can only imagine what the outer lining would be like.

50. Thus whoever wants to would be able to extend his arm and pluck this fruit. He will not have to take pains in plucking it.

51. The actual word is: فِيهِنَّ. The antecedent of the pronoun in it is all the favours previously mentioned or can be understood as obvious as part of the delights of Paradise.

52. The implication is that the reward of virtue can only be given in the form of blessings and favours; it can never be vice or indifference. Amīn Ahsan Islāhī writes:

… Since this is something very clearly grounded in human nature and no sensible person in his senses can deny it, it has been stated in a manner which reflects it being an obvious reality. The word إِحْسَان is used for piety as well as for the reward of piety. In this verse, it is used very eloquently in both these meanings. (Amīn Ahsan Islāhī, Tadabbur-i Qur’ān, vol. 8, 148)

53. Two more orchards are mentioned as a completion of favour. In other words, they will not merely have two orchards; they will have another two besides these two as well. It is evident from the features of these orchards mentioned that the first two would be on flat land and as permanent abodes; the other two would be on mountainous regions where the dwellers of Paradise will go for vacation and entertainment. The words حُورٌ مَّقْصُورَاتٌ فِي الْخِيَامِ and فِيهِمَا عَيْنَانِ نَضَّاخَتَانِ point towards this difference.

54. The mention of dates and pomegranates after a mention of fruit is a mention of the specific after the general. This is because these two types of fruit were very relished by the Arabs.

55. The actual word is: عَبْقَرِي. In the folk tales of the Arab jāhiliyyah the word عَبْقَر is used for the land of fairies. With reference to it, they would call every elegant and unique thing as عَبْقَرِي.

56. So people should rest assured that all these blessings and favours shall one day manifest themselves.

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