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Surah al-Dhariyat (1)
Qur'anic Exegesis
Imam Hamiduddin Farahi
(Tr. by:Tariq Haashmi)

‘Umūd1 and Naẓm

This is the second of the group of seven sūrahs (from sūrah 50 to 56) which prove the veracity of the prophethood and holy Qur’ān, a source of news of the Last Judgment and a warning to those who ascribe partners to God and reject the Messengers and their message, as their central theme around which they all revolve. Though these sūrahs share the same theme as ‘umūd yet each deals with different aspects of this theme, as has been mentioned in the commentary on the previous sūrah (Sūrah Qāf, Q. 50). Here I will confine myself to the aspects of the theme that are specific to this sūrah. In other words, this discussion will aim at explaining how this sūrah is different from the previous ones.

The previous sūrah substantiates the resurrection and clarifies the doubts and objections of the contenders. In the present sūrah, the need for retribution has been established. The previous sūrah, as we have learnt, starts with the words: “Qāf. By the Gracious Qur’ān. (O Muhammad you are a rasūl of Allah). Yet they are surprised that there has come to them a warner from amongst themselves. So the unbelievers say: “This indeed is very strange: that after we are dead and have become dust, we shall be raised to life again. Such a resurrection is far from possible.” (Q. 50:1-3)

This has been followed by proofs corroborating the last judgment. The retribution ordained for the rejecters has also been reckoned. God Almighty says: “Previously the people of Noah (sws) and the people of al-Rass denied this truth, and so did the Thamūd, ‘A%d, Pharaoh, the brethren of Lūṭ, the dwellers of al-Aykah and the people of Tubba‘; all of them disbelieved in their Messengers. And my warning was fulfilled.” (Q. 50:12-4)

The punishment stories have not been mentioned in detail. The sūrah limits the discussion to a brief allusion to the parties and their fates. It has also not gone further in supporting the resurrection beyond clear and simple proofs. The sūrah ends with the advice to the holy Prophet (sws) to remain firm in his mission, to offer the ṣalāh, and to remind his addressees of the realities. The sūrah then concludes with the following warning: “On the day when the earth will split asunder from them, while they will be hastening forth. That is a gathering easy for Us to make. We are fully aware of what they say, and you (O Muhammad) are in no way a compeller over them. And warn through the Qur’ān him who fears My threat.”(Q. 50:44-5)

Since the central theme of the present sūrah is retribution, which implies rewarding the believers and punishing the disbelievers, the discussion starts with a mention of the arguments substantiating the promised retribution. God Almighty says: “What you are being promised is true; and verily Judgment (al-dīn) must indeed come to pass.”(Q. 51:5) The promise of reward and retribution covers divine mercy as well as wrath. The sūrah promises mercy to the believers and threatens the rejecters of punishment. The word “dīn” is a general term. It implies that everyone shall be rewarded according to his conduct in this worldly life. In consideration of this general meaning of the promise, the subsequent stories consistently deal with both mercy and punishment. Consider the verse, for example: “And in the heavens is your sustenance and also that which you are promised. (mā tū‘adūn)” (Q. 51:22) “That you are promised” is a general statement. It implies both reward and punishment. The blessing of the clouds and lightening/thunder both relate to the phenomenon of rain. This is followed by a reference to the encounter of Abraham (sws) with his guests. “Have you learnt the story of Abraham’s honored guests?” (Q. 51:24) This story, containing the tale of Abraham’s (sws) encounter with his guests, contained news of reward for one nation and of warning of destruction to another. This reality has been put in Sūrah al-Ḥijr (Q. 15) in most clear words. The Almighty says: “O Prophet! Tell My devoted servants that I am indeed forgiving, merciful and that my punishment is the most painful one. And tell them about the guests of Abraham (sws).” (Q. 15:49:51)

Since God’s warning is a prominent theme in the present sūrah, the destruction of earlier nations receives great stress. Yet we observe in the subsequent discussions that all the stories quoted here relating to punishment and wrath also cover divine blessings and mercy. Mercy and blessings are not prominent because this aspect has been covered in other sūrahs, which use the same incidents with additional stress on the aspect of blessings, mercy and reward for the believers.

Thus, in the present sūrah, this aspect of the divine sunnah has not been detailed and explained. However, a brief account of the referred to punishment stories have been followed by a general rule governing both punishment and reward. The general rule is this: Allah Almighty has created everything with a particular wisdom. All creatures are created in pairs. It is only the co-ordination of its pair that each is complemented, and that the purpose of its creation is fulfilled. Nothing among the creation exists purposeless. Everything has a necessary end. This requires that a particular time is set for the fulfillment of this purpose. The divine punishment is a direct corollary of His mercy.

In the end, the sūrah calls us to believe in the idea of tawḥīd in such a way that its qualities necessitate retribution and final accountability. Here I intend to confine my discussion to this overview of the themes. Details will be offered at the proper place during the course of the commentary.


Text and Translation: Q. 51:1-14

وَالذَّارِيَاتِ ذَرْوًا فَالْحَامِلَاتِ وِقْرًا فَالْجَارِيَاتِ يُسْرًا فَالْمُقَسِّمَاتِ أَمْرًا إِنَّمَا تُوعَدُونَ لَصَادِقٌ وَإِنَّ الدِّينَ لَوَاقِعٌ وَالسَّمَاء ذَاتِ الْحُبُكِ إِنَّكُمْ لَفِي قَوْلٍ مُّخْتَلِفٍ يُؤْفَكُ عَنْهُ مَنْ أُفِكَ قُتِلَ الْخَرَّاصُونَ الَّذِينَ هُمْ فِي غَمْرَةٍ سَاهُونَ يَسْأَلُونَ أَيَّانَ يَوْمُ الدِّينِ يَوْمَ هُمْ عَلَى النَّارِ يُفْتَنُونَ ذُوقُوا فِتْنَتَكُمْ هَذَا الَّذِي كُنتُم بِهِ تَسْتَعْجِلُونَ

The winds that scatter dust, carry the load, speed lightly along, and differentiate the affair, bear witness that what you are being promised is true; and verily Judgment must indeed come to pass. By the rippled clouds, indeed you are in a doctrine discordant. Those who have lost their power to discern are unable to believe in it. Woe to the conjecturers, those who are engulfed in ignorance and are heedless. They ask: “when is the Day of Retribution?” It is when they will be heated on the fire. “Taste the consequence of your trials. This is what you used to ask to be hastened.”


Explanation of Words and Ta’wīl2 of Sentences and Phrases


wa al-dhāriyāt dharwan: The winds that scatter dust

The noun al-riyāḥ (winds) qualified by the adjective al-dhāriyāt (that which scatter dust) has been left unexpressed. The verb zara’a means to scatter dust or soot.  The adjective dhāriyāt is very widely used to describe riyāḥ (winds) and that is why they have not been explicitly mentioned. A‘shā Bakr b. Wā’il says:


Fajarā bi’l ghulāmi shibh ḥarīqin

Fī yabīsin tadhrūhu rīḥu shimāl


(The horse fled with the young man after the manner of a fire, in the way dry leaves are carried away by the North winds.)3


Since the adjective al-dhāriyāt famously qualifies winds, the noun has been omitted according to the convention of the Arabs. The sufficient quality has been considered a complete indicator to the relevant phenomenon. This style of omitting the qualified noun is frequently employed in the holy Qur’ān and the classical Arabic literature.


fa al-ḥāmilāt-i-wiqran: then carry the load (clouds)

Conjugation (‘aṭf) of adjectives by the particle “f” implies chronological sequence in the ordered adjectives. This indicates that all the adjectives in the structure qualify a single noun. Sometimes, the holy Qur’ān employs the conjunction waw to conjugate different adjectives in the oath formulas yet the oath is taken by a single entity. An example of this use can be found in Sūrah Mursalāt. (Q. 77) The above shows that it would not be correct to hold that these adjectives qualify different things, as has been held by some. They believe, for example, that some of the adjectives, mentioned in this oath cluster, qualify angels while others qualify things such as winds. This view militates against the conventions of the Arabic language. It also ignores the parallels of the same sentence structures used in the holy Qur’ān. The Almighty says: “The ones that run while panting, then strike sparks of fire, then make raids at dawn, then raise the dust, then penetrate into the ranks.” (Q. 100:1-5) Obviously all these adjectives qualify a single noun. These are not the qualities of different entities. Consider the following verse attributed to Ibn Ziyābah:


Yā lahfa Ziyābah li al-Ḥārith

Al-ṣā’ibu fa al-ghānimu fa al-’ā’ibu


(Pity Ziyābah for Ḥārith, who raided at dawn, looted the spoils and returned.)4


Moreover, there is no need to attribute these adjectives to more than a single entity. All these adjectives and the corresponding noun properly and fully collocate. Details shall soon follow.

The word wiqr signifies weight and burden. In this instance the word has been used in its general sense. It refers to anything that is carried by the winds. This too will be discussed in detail later. We can take this word to refer to clouds, since they are heavy. The holy Qur’ān says: “And (he) brings up heavy clouds (al-siḥāb al-thiqāl).”(Q. 13:12) The most well-known function of the winds is that they carry clouds. It has been said in the holy Qur’ān: “He is the one who, before his mercy, sends forth the winds as good news, until they lift up the heavy clouds; we drive them to a dead countryside and make the rain fall upon it.”(Q. 7:57)


fa al-muqassimāti amran: then differentiate the affair

Qassama al-amr means he separated and set apart different aspects of the matter. The expression qasama al-amr gives the same meaning. The former expression, however, contains an element of rigor as compared to the latter one. An example is the use of the verbs kassara (he broke something into pieces) and kasara (he broke it). Murād b. Manqadh describes a donkey in search for fresh grass:


Ẓalla fī a‘lā yafā‘in jādhilan

Yuqassimu al-amra ka qasmi al-mu’tamir


 (He (the donkey) stood at the top of the hillock keeping its head high. He discerned different aspects of the matter, after the manner of a careful deliberator.)5


The winds differentiate between nations by different functions. They prove to be a bounty for one nation, in that they produce life by giving rain, and bring punishment for another, as they cause floods and hurricanes resulting in utter destruction. We will discuss this issue later in detail. These verses ascribe a willful act to an inanimate force. This is not unusual. Many examples of the kind can be found in the classical Arabic literature as well as the holy Qur’ān.


innamā tū‘adūna laṣādiq: what you are being promised is true

The word tū‘adūna is a derivation of wa‘d (promise/threat). It refers to the reward and retribution the Almighty promised the people. He communicated this promise/threat (wa‘d) through the Messenger. The promise has been clarified and established with clear examples and sound proofs. The holy Qur’ān repeatedly asserts that the Day of Judgment will certainly come. People will be resurrected and judged for their actions and beliefs. Proper reward for the pious deeds and suitable punishment for bad conduct are promised by the Almighty Allah. For example, the Almighty says: “All of you will return to Him. God’s promise is always fulfilled. It is He who creates initially and He will surely repeat this act (of creation again) so that He may reward the believers.” (Q. 10:4)

At another place the holy Qur’ān says: “They swore that Allah will never raise the dead to life. Why not? This is what He promised. He shall surely fulfill this (promise).” (Q. 16:138)

Q. 21:104 reads: “Just as We produced the first creation, so shall We produce a new one: a promise We have undertaken: truly shall We fulfill it.” Yet another time God Almighty says: “So that they might know that the promise is true and that there is no doubt about the coming of the hour of the Judgment.” (Q. 18:21)

A great number of verses can be cited in order to explain that the holy Qur’ān proves the need for the Last Judgment.

The promise (mā tū‘adūna) stated in this verse includes the good news to the believers that they will be granted success. It also implies that the unbelievers shall fail in the end and will be punished. The Almighty says: “Allah has promised those of you who believe and do good deeds that He will surely make them inherit the earth as He made their ancestors [inherit it] before them.” (Q. 24:55)

This issue has been abundantly discussed in the holy Quran. The term tū‘adūna generally includes all these things. However, in this context, it specifically refers to the resurrection. The preceding verse as well as the succeeding one deal with the reward. This interpretation—that the promise of reward is dominating here—fits in the context more closely.


wa inna al-dīna lawāqi‘: Judgment must indeed come to pass

Dīn, meaning retribution, is implied by the phrase mā tū‘adūna. The conjunction (waw) in the beginning of the verse indicates that dīn too is included in the promised facts. A general entity (mā tū‘adūna) has been coordinated to a specific one (dīn). This style of expression is called conjugation of a general statement with a specific case (‘aṭaf al-khāṣ ‘ala al-‘ām). It can also be compared to the conjugation of the whole with its part (‘aṭaf al-kull ‘ala al-juz’). This style of conjugating components of an address is usually applied to emphasize the conjugated thing. Its special position is highlighted. The benefit obtained by this style of expression in this verse is evident. The implication is that the main purpose of resurrection is to reward the pious. Punishing the wicked is a corollary of the rewarding of the pious. This has been clearly stated in the holy Qur’ān at more than one occasion.


wa al-samā’-i- dhāt al-ḥubuk: By the rippled clouds

The word al-samā’ gives different meanings which include clouds. Consider the following verse: “O earth! Swallow up your water and O clouds!  Cease your rain.” (Q. 11:44)

I base my interpretation of the word samā’ on the following arguments:

1. The sūrah swears by the winds and clouds in the inaugurating verses. Elsewhere in the Qur’ān, these two have been mentioned together several times.

2. It collocates with the muqsam ‘alayh (sworn fact) and muqsambihī (the entity/phenomenon sworn by). This point will be detailed later.

3. The adjective of dhātal-ḥubuk corroborates this meaning. Ḥubuk means to tie the knot. Abū Dā’ūd says:


Ka’anna al-ghuḍūn min al-fahdatayn

‘ilā ṭarafi al-zawri ḥubk al-‘uqad


(The pleats in the flesh projecting from the side of his thorax are like layers of a knot.)6


In this context, it connotes strength and force that binds something in proper order. Ḥibāk (sing. ḥubuk) is another derivative of the same word which is used for the tides, currents, or plaits that are prominent in well woven cloth. Zuhayr b. Abī Salmā, in one of his verses, depicts water in a spring rippled by currents of passing air. He says:


Mukallalin bi uṣūl al-nabati tansujuhū

Rīḥun kharīqun liḍāḥī mā’ihī ḥubukū


(Objects have covered it. Air passing through it creates ripples (ḥubuk) on its surface.)7


Farrā’ has commented on the verse. He says that ḥubuk is used for the tides or currents that are formed when air disturbs water. Aḥādīth describe dajjāl as follows: “His hair will be weaved into plaits (inna sha‘rahūḥubukun ḥubukun).” (Musnad Aḥmad No: 23534) Clouds too are often described by the adjective ḥubuk. This is because they are like ripples of water currents crowned by foam or wool. Imra’ al-Qays describes a palace covered with clouds.


Tulā‘ibu awlād al-wa‘ūl ribā‘ahā

Duwayn al-samā’i fī ru’ūs al-majādil


Mukallatan ḥamrā’ dhāta asirratin

Lahā ḥabakun ka’annahā min ḥabā’il


(Camel)) calves play with the young camels on the top of mountains just below the sky while (the mountain tops) are crowned by the rubicund clouds with paths weaved like wasā’il (a stripy cloth of Yemenite make)).8


This depicts wintery clouds specifically noting its colour and pattern.

Khansā’ describes winter clouds in these words:


Ḥīna al-riyāḥu bilā’ilun

Nukbun hawā’ijuhā ṣawārid


Yabfīna ‘an līṭ al-samā‘i

Ẓalā’ilan wa al-mā’u jāmid


Mizaqan tuṭarriduhā al-riyāḥu

ka’annahā khiraqun ṭarā’id


(Wild currents of cold and blind winds blew, driving the clouds ahead and leaving water frozen. The patches of clouds they carried seemed like swarms of grasshoppers riding the air.)9


Some scholars have held that ḥubuk describes the starry sky. Some hold that the heavens can be called dhāt al-ḥubuk for it is firm and established. Some others hold that it can be characterized as ḥubuk for it is decorated and is full of stars. I do not believe these interpretations to be plausible. The word ḥubuk in this place has not been used as a maṣdar (verbal noun). It is the plural form of ḥibāk which means a ripple, path and branch. This, therefore, does not fit a description of the heavens, neither with reference to the firmness of the firmament nor to its starriness.


innakum lafī qawlin mukhtalif: indeed you are in a doctrine discordant

The implication is that you differ on the position of the Day of Judgment. Elsewhere it has been put explicitly: “About what are they asking? Are they asking about the mighty event, concerning which they differ with each other? Very soon they shall come to know.” (Q. 78: 1-4)

The placement and the context of situation make this sentence a rebuke and censure of the view of the contenders. Semantically it is not the complement of the oath (jawāb al-qasam) which was already mentioned after the first group of oaths, rendering the repetition redundant. The complement of the oath is left unstated yet is understood. We know that at times the holy Qur’ān prefaces rebukes and censures with an oath. In such instances jawab al-qasam is understood from the context. Again it is not necessarily mentioned. The following verse offers an example: “Qāf. By the glorious Qur’ān, (O Muhammad you are a rasūl of Allah). Yet they wonder that there came to them a warner from among themselves. So the unbelievers say: This indeed is very strange that after we are dead and have become dust, we shall be raised to life again. Such a resurrection is far from possible.” (Q. 50: 1-2)

In this verse, an oath follows a reproof and a censure instead of a muqsim‘alayh (object of oath). Another example of this style of omission of the jawāb al-qasam is found in Sūrah Burūj: “By the heaven and its constellations! by the promised Day of Judgment, by the witnesses and that which is being witnessed, doomed be the companions of the ditch.” (Q. 85:1-4)

A great number of examples can be cited from the Qur’ān in this regard.


yu’faku ‘anhu man ufik: those void of insight are unable to believe in it

This is an independent statement and it does not describe the phrase qawlin mukhtalif (dispute) occurring in the previous verse. The implication is that those deprived of insight fail to believe in the resurrection. Ifk means overturning of something. It is understandable why the word ifk is used to mean falsity. Māfūk is the one void of insight. Layth says:


mā lī arāka ‘ājizan ufīkā


(Why is it that I see you humble and deprived of insight (ufīkan))?10


qutila al-kharrāsūn: Woe to the conjecturers

Al-kharrāṣūn (singular kharrāṣ) signifies conjecturers. They say kharraṣa al-nakhl (he estimated the quantity of the dates on the date-palms). Kharraṣa fī al-ḥadīth means he said what he did not know. Al-kharrāsūn are, therefore, people who throw wild guesses regarding the Day of Judgment. Their views have no supporting grounds. This theme has been repeatedly discussed in the holy Qur’ān. The Almighty says: “They have confused knowledge of the Hereafter. Rather they are in doubt about it.” (Q. 27:66)

At another occasion, their views about the Hereafter have been mentioned as follows: “We believe it to be a mere conjecture. We are not convinced of it.” (Q. 45:32)


alladhīna hum fī ghamratin sāhūn: those who are engulfed in ignorance and are heedless

Fī ghamratin, in utter ignorance. This meaning can also be expressed by phrase fī ghitā’in wa ‘amāyatin. Sāhūn (singular: sāhin) is the second khabar (enunciative, the first being fī ghamratin). Sāhūn implies that the ignorance of the rejecters of the Last Judgment is perpetual. They are wholly caught in an unbreakable spell of ignorance. Consequently they cannot feel and understand facts which they could have realized otherwise. This, therefore, is their state which is the real cause of their disease. They are fully caught in ignorance and have indulged in desires of the flesh. This does not leave them a moment to come to their senses and realize the consequences of their behavior. The basic thrust of the sentence is condemnation of the doubts they cherish about the afterlife. Their doubts originate from heedlessness to the preaching of the prophets. This origin of their doubts is evident from their following quizzical question.


ayyāna yawm al-dīn?: when will be the Day of Retribution?

This question implies negation as well as mockery of the Last Judgment. It also expresses their demand that the Retribution should be brought upon them quickly if it is possible. Each of these three senses expresses the worst kind of disobedience as has been attested in Sūrah al-Qiyāmah. The Almighty says: “But man desires to show disobedience even in front of his Lord. He asks, ‘When will this Day of Judgment be?’” (Q. 75:5-6)

The response from the Almighty (immediately following the question) truly considers the base mentality of the questioners.


yawma hum ‘ala al-nāri yuftanūn: It is when they will be heated on the fire

The accusative form of the word yawma, in this verse, indicates that it is an adverb (ẓarf). Here it marks time (ẓarf al-zamān). The implication is “the Day of Judgment will come when they will be tried in the fire.” In other words the time they will find themselves in this situation would be the Day of Judgment. The word yawma is used to mark a point of time (not the day as opposed to night) as is evidenced by the following verse: “That day, (i.e. at that time), will be a hard day.” (Q. 74:9)

Some people have opined that the word yawma in this instance is originally in the nominative case (marfū‘). Its apparent form is naṣb (accusative case) for in this case it (yawm) has been ascribed to something indeclinable. I believe that this explanation and analysis is grammatically correct. Yet, however, I believe this is not plausible. It does not fit in the context. We see that the question that has been previously mentioned pertains to the Judgment. It does not enquire about the Day of Judgment. However, it is possible that one interprets the answer according to one’s understanding of the question. Thus one could say that the question asks when this Day of Judgment is. And the response would be: “it will be held this and this day.”

Fatanahū means “he tested/assessed him” as in wafatannākafatūnā (we tested you thoroughly. Q. 20:40) The word fitnah is derived from this verb (fatana). Fitnah connotes every such enjoyment or pain that tests one’s mettle as well as determination. It is said: fatanathu al-mar’atu to mean that the woman enticed/tempted him and also fatanahū al-shayṭān means Satan misled him. I can say fatantu al-dhahab to mean that I put gold on fire to assess its quality. A tested pure dīnār is called dīnārmaftūn. Waraqfatīn is fire-tested sliver. Lava field and volcanic area are called fatīn because the stones look as if they are burnt. All the above usages of the word share some aspect of the theme of trial and test.

The words “yuftanūn” (they shall be heated) alludes to two things. First, they would be burnt in it. Second, the fire in which they are burning is fueled with the worldly attractions which made them forget the Judgment. They will be told that they remained forgetful of this Day amidst the riches of the ephemeral world. This has been clearly put in the next verses. Since their question was toned to reflect conceitedness and mockery, the answer is but only appropriate.


dhūqū fitnatakum: taste (the consequence of) your trials

Taste what you cherished in the worldly life. The reality of what you courted of the charms of the worldly life has manifested itself to you. In the life of the world, you were overpowered by forgetfulness. You could not test its true taste. Now you have to taste it. This sentence has been addressed directly to the non-believers. We, however, do not need to suppose that the vocative particle has been suppressed. In fact the address has been changed from indirect to direct to obtain a specific rhetorical purpose. It assumes the third person addressee as present. This gives the impression that the Day of Judgment is already there. The addressees seem to have already been presented to the Fire before this address takes place.


(To be continued)

(Translated by Tariq Mahmood Hashmi)






1. ‘Umūd (literally pillar, column) has been used here as a term. Mustansir Mir, in his doctoral thesis, the Coherence in the Qur’ān, has defined the term, based on a thorough study of Farāhī’s treatment of the word, as follows: “In a word, the ‘umūd is hermeneutically significant theme characterized by centrality, concreteness, distinctiveness, and universality.” Mir, The Coherence in the Qur’ān: A Study of Iṣlāḥi’s Concept of Niẓām in Tadabbur-i Qur’ān (Indianapolis: American Trust Publications, 1986), 39.

2. By ta’wīl the author means identification and determination of the intended significance of the plurivocal words, phrases and sentences.

3. Abū Zayd Muhammad b. Abī al-Khaṭṭāb, Jamharah Ash‘ār al-‘Arab (Beirut: Dār Ṣādir, N.D.), 127.

4. Aḥmad b Muḥammad Marzūqī, Sharḥ al-Ḥamāsah Abī Tamām, 1st ed., vol. 1 (Beirut: Dār al-Jīl, 1991), 147.

5. Aḥmad Muḥammad Shākir and ‘Abd al-Salām Muḥammad Hārūn, Al-Mufaḍḍaliyāt, 7th ed. (Cairo: Dār al-Ma‘ārif, N.D.), 86.

6. Lisān al-‘Arab, FHD.

7. Zuhayr b. Abī Sulmā, Dīwān (Beirut: Dār al-Kutub al-‘Ilmiyya, 1998), 82.

8. Imr al-Qays, Dīwān (Beirut: Dār al-Kutub al-‘Ilmiyyah, 2004), 136.

9. Khansā’, Diwān, 2nd ed. (Beirut: Dār al-Ma‘rifah, 2004), 35.

10. Lisān al-‘Arab, ’-F-K


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