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Surah Tur and Surah Najm
Qur'anic Exegesis
Javed Ahmad Ghamidi
(Tr. by:Dr. Shehzad Saleem)


Both these sūrahs form a pair with regard to their subject. The topic of both is to substantiate the Day of Judgement and to warn and to give glad tidings to people on its basis. In the first sūrah, the element of warning people of the punishment and criticism on the attitude of the leaders of the Quraysh is evident, while in the second one, an element of refutation of their foolish beliefs about God and the Hereafter is prominent. Both sūrahs sound assurance to the Prophet (sws). Both are addressed to the Quraysh and it is evident from their subject that they were revealed in Makkah in the phase of indhār-i ‘ām (open warning) of the Prophet’s preaching mission.


Sūrah Tūr


بسم الله الرحمن الرحيم

وَالطُّورِ (1) وَكِتَابٍ مَسْطُورٍ (2) فِي رَقٍّ مَنْشُورٍ (3) وَالْبَيْتِ الْمَعْمُورِ (4) وَالسَّقْفِ الْمَرْفُوعِ (5) وَالْبَحْرِ الْمَسْجُورِ (6) إِنَّ عَذَابَ رَبِّكَ لَوَاقِعٌ (7) مَا لَهُ مِنْ دَافِعٍ (8) يَوْمَ تَمُورُ السَّمَاءُ مَوْرًا (9) وَتَسِيرُ الْجِبَالُ سَيْرًا (10) فَوَيْلٌ يَوْمَئِذٍ لِلْمُكَذِّبِينَ (11) الَّذِينَ هُمْ فِي خَوْضٍ يَلْعَبُونَ (12) يَوْمَ يُدَعُّونَ إِلَى نَارِ جَهَنَّمَ دَعًّا (13) هَذِهِ النَّارُ الَّتِي كُنتُمْ بِهَا تُكَذِّبُونَ (14) أَفَسِحْرٌ هَذَا أَمْ أَنْتُمْ لاَ تُبْصِرُونَ (15) اصْلَوْهَا فَاصْبِرُوا أَوْ لاَ تَصْبِرُوا سَوَاءٌ عَلَيْكُمْ إِنَّمَا تُجْزَوْنَ مَا كُنتُمْ تَعْمَلُونَ (16)

In the name of Allah, the Most Gracious, the Ever Merciful.

The Mount of Sinai bears witness1 and also the scripture inscribed2 on a parchment unrolled. [Similarly,] this populated house [this earth of yours] bear witness and the lofty roof [of the sky] and the overflowing seas also3 that indeed the punishment of your Lord4 is certain to come. No one can avert it. (1-8)

The Day when the sky will shake while shuddering and the mountains will start to move, on that Day, woe be to the deniers, who, toying around, engage in pleasantries.5 The Day when they shall be driven towards the Fire of Hell. [It shall be said to them:] this is the Fire you had been denying. Speak up: “Is this magic or are you blind? Enter into it. Whether you bear it or not, it is alike for you.6 You will be rewarded exactly with you had been doing.” (9-16)


إِنَّ الْمُتَّقِينَ فِي جَنَّاتٍ وَنَعِيمٍ (17) فَاكِهِينَ بِمَا آتَاهُمْ رَبُّهُمْ وَوَقَاهُمْ رَبُّهُمْ عَذَابَ الْجَحِيمِ (18) كُلُوا وَاشْرَبُوا هَنِيئًا بِمَا كُنتُمْ تَعْمَلُونَ (19) مُتَّكِئِينَ عَلَى سُرُرٍ مَصْفُوفَةٍ وَزَوَّجْنَاهُمْ بِحُورٍ عِينٍ (20) وَالَّذِينَ آمَنُوا وَاتَّبَعَتْهُمْ ذُرِّيَّتُهُمْ بِإِيمَانٍ أَلْحَقْنَا بِهِمْ ذُرِّيَّتَهُمْ وَمَا أَلَتْنَاهُمْ مِنْ عَمَلِهِمْ مِنْ شَيْءٍ كُلُّ امْرِئٍ بِمَا كَسَبَ رَهِينٌ (21) وَأَمْدَدْنَاهُمْ بِفَاكِهَةٍ وَلَحْمٍ مِمَّا يَشْتَهُونَ (22) يَتَنَازَعُونَ فِيهَا كَأْسًا لاَ لَغْوٌ فِيهَا وَلاَ تَأْثِيمٌ (23). وَيَطُوفُ عَلَيْهِمْ غِلْمَانٌ لَهُمْ كَأَنَّهُمْ لُؤْلُؤٌ مَكْنُونٌ (24) وَأَقْبَلَ بَعْضُهُمْ عَلَى بَعْضٍ يَتَسَاءَلُونَ (25) قَالُوا إِنَّا كُنَّا قَبْلُ فِي أَهْلِنَا مُشْفِقِينَ (26) فَمَنَّ اللهُ عَلَيْنَا وَوَقَانَا عَذَابَ السَّمُومِ (27) إِنَّا كُنَّا مِنْ قَبْلُ نَدْعُوهُ إِنَّهُ هُوَ الْبَرُّ الرَّحِيمُ (28)

Indeed, the righteous7 shall be in gardens and bliss, enjoying what their Lord has blessed them with and [also enjoying] that their Lord has preserved them from the torment of Hell-fire. Now eat and drink with relish8 as reward for the deeds you have been doing. They will continue to recline on thrones arranged in rows9 and We would have wed them with large eyed houris. (17-20)

Those who have accepted faith, and their children too followed them with any level of faith,10 We shall unite their children with them [in their level]11 and not even slightly diminish the reward of their deeds.12 [This is because] each individual is in pledge for his earning.13 We shall continue to provide them the fruits and meat they like.14 They will take cups of wine from one another which will be free from idle talk and allegations [on others]. And there shall wait upon them [handsome] boys like pearls preserved.15 (21-24)

They will turn towards one another asking about [the past]: “Before this, we remained fearful about our families;16 so the Almighty has been gracious to us and has delivered us from the blazing punishment of Hell. We used to invoke only Him before.17 Indeed, He is the keeper of His promises, Ever-Merciful.”18 (25-28)


فَذَكِّرْ فَمَا أَنتَ بِنِعْمَتِ رَبِّكَ بِكَاهِنٍ وَلَا مَجْنُونٍ (29) أَمْ يَقُولُونَ شَاعِرٌ نَّتَرَبَّصُ بِهِ رَيْبَ الْمَنُونِ (30) قُلْ تَرَبَّصُوا فَإِنِّي مَعَكُم مِّنَ الْمُتَرَبِّصِينَ (31) أَمْ تَأْمُرُهُمْ أَحْلَامُهُم بِهَذَا أَمْ هُمْ قَوْمٌ طَاغُونَ (32) أَمْ يَقُولُونَ تَقَوَّلَهُ بَل لَّا يُؤْمِنُونَ (33) فَلْيَأْتُوا بِحَدِيثٍ مِّثْلِهِ إِن كَانُوا صَادِقِينَ (34) أَمْ خُلِقُوا مِنْ غَيْرِ شَيْءٍ أَمْ هُمُ الْخَالِقُونَ (35) أَمْ خَلَقُوا السَّمَاوَاتِ وَالْأَرْضَ بَل لَّا يُوقِنُونَ (36) أَمْ عِندَهُمْ خَزَائِنُ رَبِّكَ أَمْ هُمُ الْمُصَيْطِرُونَ (37) أَمْ لَهُمْ سُلَّمٌ يَسْتَمِعُونَ فِيهِ فَلْيَأْتِ مُسْتَمِعُهُم بِسُلْطَانٍ مُّبِينٍ (38) أَمْ لَهُ الْبَنَاتُ وَلَكُمُ الْبَنُونَ (39) أَمْ تَسْأَلُهُمْ أَجْرًا فَهُم مِّن مَّغْرَمٍ مُّثْقَلُونَ (40) أَمْ عِندَهُمُ الْغَيْبُ فَهُمْ يَكْتُبُونَ (41) أَمْ يُرِيدُونَ كَيْدًا فَالَّذِينَ كَفَرُوا هُمُ الْمَكِيدُونَ (42) أَمْ لَهُمْ إِلَهٌ غَيْرُ اللهِ سُبْحَانَ اللهِ عَمَّا يُشْرِكُونَ (43) وَإِن يَرَوْا كِسْفًا مِّنَ السَّمَاء سَاقِطًا يَقُولُوا سَحَابٌ مَّرْكُومٌ (44) فَذَرْهُمْ حَتَّى يُلَاقُوا يَوْمَهُمُ الَّذِي فِيهِ يُصْعَقُونَ (45) يَوْمَ لَا يُغْنِي عَنْهُمْ كَيْدُهُمْ شَيْئًا وَلَا هُمْ يُنصَرُونَ (46) وَإِنَّ لِلَّذِينَ ظَلَمُوا عَذَابًا دُونَ ذَلِكَ وَلَكِنَّ أَكْثَرَهُمْ لَا يَعْلَمُونَ (47) وَاصْبِرْ لِحُكْمِ رَبِّكَ فَإِنَّكَ بِأَعْيُنِنَا وَسَبِّحْ بِحَمْدِ رَبِّكَ حِينَ تَقُومُ (48) وَمِنَ اللَّيْلِ فَسَبِّحْهُ وَإِدْبَارَ النُّجُومِ (49)

Therefore, [worry not O Prophet and] keep reminding because by the grace of your Lord19 you are no soothsayer or one possessed. Do they say that he is a poet for whom we await an adverse turn of fortune?20 Tell [them:] “Wait and I shall also wait with you.” Does their intellect prompt them to say this or are they a people rebellious?21 Do they say that he himself has concocted this [Qur’ān]? [No, this is not so] in fact, they do not want to accept.22 If they are truthful, then let them produce a discourse having the same majesty.23 (29-34)

[Ask them: “If they do not believe in the Hereafter, then] have they been created without any creator or are they their own creators? Or have they created the heavens and the earth? [No, this is not the case]. In fact, they do not have conviction.24 (35-36)

[What has made them arrogant?] Do they alone have the treasures of your Lord or only they are in charge of them? 25 Do they have a ladder climbing which they overhear the information of the heavens [that they shall be in bliss there as well?] If this is so, then let the one who has heard this bring a clear proof. [They should only reflect on their beliefs.] Is it that He [Who is the creator of the heavens and the earth] has daughters whilst you have sons?26 (37-39)

[Why don’t they listen?] Do you ask a reward from them that they are being burdened with its penalty?27 Do they have knowledge of the Unseen; thus they write it down themselves [and do not think that they need any prophet for their guidance?] Do they intend to contrive a plot? Then those who have disbelieved shall themselves be trapped in it.28 Do they have a god besides Allah [who will save them? Certainly not!] Exalted is Allah above what they associate with Him. (40-43)

[They will not profess belief] and even if they see a fragment of the heavens falling down they will say: “Layers of clouds [that are coming forth].”29 So leave them alone till they encounter their Day when they shall lose their senses, the Day when their guiles will be of no avail to them, nor will they be helped. (44-46)

For these wrongdoers, there is another punishment30 besides this but most of them know it not. [So leave them alone] and with perseverance wait for your Lord’s decree.31 [They will not be able to harm you]. You are before Our eyes.32 And [to acquire perseverance] glorify your Lord and praise Him when you get up [for the prayer]33 and glorify Him in the night also and at the declining of the stars too.34 (47-49)



Sūrah Najm


بسم الله الرحمن الرحيم

وَالنَّجْمِ إِذَا هَوَى (1) مَا ضَلَّ صَاحِبُكُمْ وَمَا غَوَى (2) وَمَا يَنطِقُ عَنِ الْهَوَى (3) إِنْ هُوَ إِلَّا وَحْيٌ يُوحَى (4) عَلَّمَهُ شَدِيدُ الْقُوَى (5) ذُو مِرَّةٍ فَاسْتَوَى (6) وَهُوَ بِالْأُفُقِ الْأَعْلَى (7) ثُمَّ دَنَا فَتَدَلَّى (8) فَكَانَ قَابَ قَوْسَيْنِ أَوْ أَدْنَى (9) فَأَوْحَى إِلَى عَبْدِهِ مَا أَوْحَى (10) مَا كَذَبَ الْفُؤَادُ مَا رَأَى (11) أَفَتُمَارُونَهُ عَلَى مَا يَرَى (12) وَلَقَدْ رَآهُ نَزْلَةً أُخْرَى (13) عِندَ سِدْرَةِ الْمُنْتَهَى (14) عِندَهَا جَنَّةُ الْمَأْوَى (15) إِذْ يَغْشَى السِّدْرَةَ مَا يَغْشَى (16) مَا زَاغَ الْبَصَرُ وَمَا طَغَى (17) لَقَدْ رَأَى مِنْ آيَاتِ رَبِّهِ الْكُبْرَى (18)

The stars, when they fall, bear witness35 that your companion is neither lost nor has gone astray.36 He does not speak out of his own fancy. 37 37 This [Qur’ān] is but a revelation sent down to him. He has been taught by an angel, mighty in power, towering in character, endued with wisdom.38 He appeared such that he was on the higher horizon.39 Then he drew near and bent down40 within two bows’ length or even closer.41 The Almighty then revealed to His servant that which He revealed. Whatever he saw was not his heart’s delusion. His heart did not deny his vision. So will you then quarrel with him over what he is seeing? (1-12)

And he beheld him once again near the farthest lote-tree,42 close to which is the Paradise of Repose,43 when the lote-tree was being covered with that which was covering it.44 His sight did not falter nor lost its poise.45 He saw his Lord’s great signs.46 (13-18)



أَفَرَأَيْتُمُ اللَّاتَ وَالْعُزَّى (19) وَمَنَاةَ الثَّالِثَةَ الْأُخْرَى (20) أَلَكُمُ الذَّكَرُ وَلَهُ الْأُنثَى (21) تِلْكَ إِذًا قِسْمَةٌ ضِيزَى (22) إِنْ هِيَ إِلَّا أَسْمَاء سَمَّيْتُمُوهَا أَنتُمْ وَآبَاؤُكُم مَّا أَنزَلَ اللَّهُ بِهَا مِن سُلْطَانٍ إِن يَتَّبِعُونَ إِلَّا الظَّنَّ وَمَا تَهْوَى الْأَنفُسُ وَلَقَدْ جَاءهُم مِّن رَّبِّهِمُ الْهُدَى (23) أَمْ لِلْإِنسَانِ مَا تَمَنَّى (24) فَلِلَّهِ الْآخِرَةُ وَالْأُولَى (25) وَكَم مِّن مَّلَكٍ فِي السَّمَاوَاتِ لَا تُغْنِي شَفَاعَتُهُمْ شَيْئًا إِلَّا مِن بَعْدِ أَن يَأْذَنَ اللَّهُ لِمَن يَشَاء وَيَرْضَى (26) إِنَّ الَّذِينَ لَا يُؤْمِنُونَ بِالْآخِرَةِ لَيُسَمُّونَ الْمَلَائِكَةَ تَسْمِيَةَ الْأُنثَى (27) وَمَا لَهُم بِهِ مِنْ عِلْمٍ إِن يَتَّبِعُونَ إِلَّا الظَّنَّ وَإِنَّ الظَّنَّ لَا يُغْنِي مِنَ الْحَقِّ شَيْئًا (28) فَأَعْرِضْ عَن مَّن تَوَلَّى عَن ذِكْرِنَا وَلَمْ يُرِدْ إِلَّا الْحَيَاةَ الدُّنْيَا (29) ذَلِكَ مَبْلَغُهُم مِّنَ الْعِلْمِ إِنَّ رَبَّكَ هُوَ أَعْلَمُ بِمَن ضَلَّ عَن سَبِيلِهِ وَهُوَ أَعْلَمُ بِمَنِ اهْتَدَى (30)


[What is the source of whatever you believe in on the contrary?] Speak up: Have you ever pondered over the reality of Lāt and ‘Uzzā and the third Manāt but which is second in rank?47 [You call them to be daughters of God; exalted be God.] For your own selves are sons and for Him daughters? This indeed is a division unjust!48 [No] these are but names which you and your fathers have invented in whose favour the Almighty has revealed no argument. [Pitiful is their foolishness.] They follow conjectures and the fancies of their own souls, even though there has already come to them a manifest guidance from their Lord.49 (19-23)

[Let them desire whatever they want to; but] will man attain all that he desires? [Certainly not!] Therefore, [they should remember that] this world and the Hereafter are under the control of Allah. [His laws do not change because of anyone’s desire.] And [what to mention of their deities;] how many angels are there in the heavens whose intercession shall be of no avail until the Almighty gives permission to whom He wants and for whom He chooses. (24-26)

Those who do not believe in the Hereafter, it is they who call the angels by the names of women.50 Yet of this they have no knowledge; They merely follow conjecture51 and conjecture can never take the place of truth. Therefore, [O Prophet!] Turn away from those who turn away from Our Reminder52 and who seek nothing but the life of this world.53 This is the farthest limit of their knowledge.54 [Leave them to themselves.] Your Lord fully knows those who have strayed from His path and those who are [on His]  guidance.55 (27-30)



وَلِلَّهِ مَا فِي السَّمَاوَاتِ وَمَا فِي الْأَرْضِ لِيَجْزِيَ الَّذِينَ أَسَاؤُوا بِمَا عَمِلُوا وَيَجْزِيَ الَّذِينَ أَحْسَنُوا بِالْحُسْنَى (31) الَّذِينَ يَجْتَنِبُونَ كَبَائِرَ الْإِثْمِ وَالْفَوَاحِشَ إِلَّا اللَّمَمَ إِنَّ رَبَّكَ وَاسِعُ الْمَغْفِرَةِ هُوَ أَعْلَمُ بِكُمْ إِذْ أَنشَأَكُم مِّنَ الْأَرْضِ وَإِذْ أَنتُمْ أَجِنَّةٌ فِي بُطُونِ أُمَّهَاتِكُمْ فَلَا تُزَكُّوا أَنفُسَكُمْ هُوَ أَعْلَمُ بِمَنِ اتَّقَى (32) أَفَرَأَيْتَ الَّذِي تَوَلَّى (33) وَأَعْطَى قَلِيلًا وَأَكْدَى (34) أَعِندَهُ عِلْمُ الْغَيْبِ فَهُوَ يَرَى (35) أَمْ لَمْ يُنَبَّأْ بِمَا فِي صُحُفِ مُوسَى (36) وَإِبْرَاهِيمَ الَّذِي وَفَّى (37) أَلَّا تَزِرُ وَازِرَةٌ وِزْرَ أُخْرَى (38) وَأَن لَّيْسَ لِلْإِنسَانِ إِلَّا مَا سَعَى (39) وَأَنَّ سَعْيَهُ سَوْفَ يُرَى (40) ثُمَّ يُجْزَاهُ الْجَزَاء الْأَوْفَى (41) وَأَنَّ إِلَى رَبِّكَ الْمُنتَهَى (42) وَأَنَّهُ هُوَ أَضْحَكَ وَأَبْكَى (43) وَأَنَّهُ هُوَ أَمَاتَ وَأَحْيَا (44) وَأَنَّهُ خَلَقَ الزَّوْجَيْنِ الذَّكَرَ وَالْأُنثَى (45) مِن نُّطْفَةٍ إِذَا تُمْنَى (46) وَأَنَّ عَلَيْهِ النَّشْأَةَ الْأُخْرَى (47) وَأَنَّهُ هُوَ أَغْنَى وَأَقْنَى (48) وَأَنَّهُ هُوَ رَبُّ الشِّعْرَى (49) وَأَنَّهُ أَهْلَكَ عَادًا الْأُولَى (50) وَثَمُودَ فَمَا أَبْقَى (51) وَقَوْمَ نُوحٍ مِّن قَبْلُ إِنَّهُمْ كَانُوا هُمْ أَظْلَمَ وَأَطْغَى (52) وَالْمُؤْتَفِكَةَ أَهْوَى (53) فَغَشَّاهَا مَا غَشَّى (54) فَبِأَيِّ آلَاء رَبِّكَ تَتَمَارَى (55)


Whatever is in the heavens and in this earth is in the jurisdiction of God.56 The result of this shall only be that He punish the evil-doers for their deeds and bestow a good reward on those who did good deeds57 – those who used to abstain from heinous sins and open indecencies except if they became contaminated for a while.58 [He will forgive them]. No doubt, your Lord is vast in mercy. [Progeny of Adam! You think highly of yourselves.] Indeed, He knows you fairly well from the time when He created you [directly] from the earth and when you were a foetus in your mothers’ wombs. Therefore, ascribe not purity to yourselves. [It is piety which is a means of any status for you and] He knows very well the pious.59 (31-32)

[They are in a grievous misconception.] Did you see the one who turned his back, gave a little [from the sustenance given to him by God] and then held back?60 [He thinks that in the Hereafter too, he will be given a high status.] Has he the knowledge of the Unseen; thus he is seeing [his status?]61 Does he not know what is in the Scriptures of Moses and of Abraham – who befittingly loyal?62 That no soul shall bear another’s burden and that a man shall only receive [in the Hereafter] that which he has earned [in this world]63 and what he has earned shall soon be shown to him; he shall then be fully rewarded and that all things shall in the end return to Allah.64 (33-42)

And65 [moreover] that, indeed, it is He Who makes [people] laugh and makes [them] weep, and it is He Who gives death and He Who gives life and it is He Who creates the pair of male and the female from a drop when it is poured forth and upon Him is the second bringing forth and that it is He who bestows and enriches and it is He who is the Lord of Sirius. 66 (43-49)

And it is He who destroyed the ancient ‘Ād67 and the Thamud also, thus sparing no one, and before them the people of Noah also. This is because they were very unjust and rebellious, and He also routed the overthrown city68 [of the people of Lot]. Thus there covered them that which did cover them.69 Now speak up: which of your Lord’s marvels will you deny! (50-55)


هَذَا نَذِيرٌ مِّنَ النُّذُرِ الْأُولَى (56) أَزِفَتْ الْآزِفَةُ (57) لَيْسَ لَهَا مِن دُونِ اللَّهِ كَاشِفَةٌ (58) أَفَمِنْ هَذَا الْحَدِيثِ تَعْجَبُونَ (59) وَتَضْحَكُونَ وَلَا تَبْكُونَ (60) وَأَنتُمْ سَامِدُونَ (61) فَاسْجُدُوا لِلَّهِ وَاعْبُدُوا (62)


This is a warner like those before. 70 What was to arrive has arrived.71 No one except Allah can avert it. So do you express wonder at this discourse? And laugh and not weep and inebriated with arrogance are in a state of indifference! [Wake up!] and prostrate your self before God and worship Him. (56-62)



(Translated by Dr Shehzad Saleem)




1. The word Tūr refers to the mount of (Sinai). It is in one of its sacred valleys Tuwā that Moses (sws) was assigned prophethood and it was decided according to the moral law of God that one nation shall be deposed and another shall be instituted. After the armies of the Pharaoh were drowned, it was here that the Israelites received the Torah and a promise was taken from them to obey the sharī‘ah of God. This mountain is a symbol of the divine retribution which kept manifesting itself continuously in the history of the Israelites. It is on this basis that the Qur’ān has presented its evidence over reward and punishment.

2. This refers to the Torah in which the law of retribution for the Israelites has been mentioned with all the details. The wordsوَكِتَابٍ مَسْطُورٍ are qualified by the attribute فِي رَقٍّ مَنْشُورٍ. The word رَقٍّ is used for thin parchment which was used for writing in ancient times. Why was this reference given? Imām Amīn Ahsan Islāhī writes:

… The fact that this Book is preserved in spread out pages is meant to convey its conclusive communication of the truth: nothing is concealed in it; everything is openly available in its spread out sheets and anyone can read it. He who cannot read it can listen to it being recited. In fact, he has the right to demand from the bearers of this Book to tell him and to read out to him what is written in this Book. (Amīn Ahsan Islāhī, Tadabbur-i Qur’ān, vol. 8, 17)

3. This is the evidence borne by the world around man. The earth, sky and overflowing seas actually signify the whole universe which is spread all around us. The words “populated house” for the earth, “lofty roof” for the sky and “overflowing” for the seas point to the power, exaltedness and greatness of God. The implication is that plant life, inorganic matter and animal life of the earth and the manifestation of power in the lofty roof sky and the multifarious signs of God in the seas all bear witness that this universe has not been made without a purpose and that man will not be left unaccountable for his deeds. This universe will reach its culmination and man too shall necessarily be held accountable. In a similar manner, these things bear witness that it is not at all difficult for the God Who has made this great universe to create a new world whenever He desires and raise man to life in it again.

4. This refers to the punishment of the Hereafter. This becomes evident from the succeeding verses.

5. This is a reference to the frivolous talk of the arrogant leaders of the Quraysh through which they tried to corner and harass the Prophet (sws). The implication is that the warning of the Qur’ān has become a matter of fun for them through which they amuse and entertain themselves. They are never serious enough to deliberate on it and the frivolous talk thy indulge in this regard is merely to entertain themselves.

6. The implication is that whether these people show patience and raise a hue and cry it is the same for them. Neither will patience win any favour here nor will any imploring be heard. They have to live here now; never can they escape from it.

7. The actual word is: الْمُتَّقِينَ. Here it refers to those people who instead of making fun of the warnings sounded by the Prophet (sws) intently heard what he had to say to them, deliberated on them and adopted them forever.

8. The actual word is: هَنِيئًا. It is an adjective of a suppressed verbal noun. The actual construction is: كُلُوا وَاشْرَبُوا أَكْلاً وَ شُرْباً هَنِيئًا.

9. This is a portrayal of the perfect way in which their sitting places will be adorned and of their mutual love and frank and free manner of sitting in front of one another.

10. This translation has been done keeping in view the fact that the word إِيمَانٍ occurs as an undefined noun.

11. This is a further glad tiding: if the children of people of faith are worthy of Paradise even if they merit the lowest level, the Almighty in order to complete His favour upon them will grant the children the same level as their parents and both will be united at one place.

It is evident from this that same will be the case when the parents are at some lower level because the love between the parents and the children which is instrumental in uniting the children with the parents, is present in the second case as well.

12. For this union, the level of the parents will not be reduced; on the contrary, the level of the children will be increased to make this union possible.

13. In other words, however superior of faith the parents may be, their children will only be united with them if they have become entitled to Paradise because of their faith and good deeds. This is because the soul of each person is held in pledge with the Almighty. He will be able to release himself from this pledge if he presents to God the earning of his deeds. Once this release is materialized, as far as the level he can attain in Paradise is concerned, the Almighty can increase it with His grace to any extent that He wants to. This does not negate any principle. Imām Amīn Ahsan Islāhī writes:

This verse guides us to fact that each person should try to guide his close ones to the path of faith as much as possible. Without faith, no one will succeed in the Hereafter even though he may be the progeny of a prophet or a messenger of God. However, if the offspring of someone followed the path of faith and even if this faith was of the lowest level, they will be able to join their parents who occupied a higher status in Paradise due to their faith. (Amīn Ahsan Islāhī, Tadabbur-i Qur’ān, vol. 8, 27)

14. The actual word is: أَمْدَدْنَاهُمْ. It refers to the fact that the farther people will come forward, the more will God’s grace and favours increase on them.

15. In the Arabic language, this simile is used to express extreme elegance and finesse.

16. The implication is that besides their own fate they were also fearful of the fate of their families; they continued to urge them to truly fear God and to live and die for Him.

17. This sentence is co-ordinated to إِنَّا كُنَّا قَبْلُ فِي أَهْلِنَا مُشْفِقِينَ earlier. Imām Amīn Ahsan Islāhī writes:

… The contents of verse 28 should have been placed after verse 26 above; however, to immediately express the favours and blessings of God, verse 27 was juxtaposed in between. The eloquence in deferring the words of verse 28 is that the real factor for the success of a person in the Hereafter is the belief of tawhīd. A person who protected it will be worthy of God’s favours and a person who distorted it will doom himself. The dwellers of Paradise will express the fact that they were firmly grounded in their belief and for this reason, the Almighty looked upon them with favour. (Amīn Ahsan Islāhī, Tadabbur-i Qur’ān, vol. 8, 29)

18. ie., He will definitely fulfill the promises He has made with His people and will not merely fulfill them, He out of His grace will grant them much more from His bounty and favours.

19. The words here are in the capacity of providing argument. Imām Amīn Ahsan Islāhī writes:

… It is not that the blessings and favours of God the Prophet (sws) enjoys are something which cannot be seen by others. What relationship do the words of wisdom and cognizance he utters on behalf of God have to the nonsensical utterances of the soothsayers? Do the soothsayers possess even a tiny speck of the character he has? He is a perfect embodiment of truth and righteousness whereas the soothsayers are liars and cheats. He receives from the Holy Spirit while the soothsayers eavesdrop to hear inspirations from the devils and in this too they make a false display. Similarly, those who call him an insane person are insane themselves. Who else can be more sane, vigilant and wise than him? (Amīn Ahsan Islāhī, Tadabbur-i Qur’ān, vol. 8, 32)

20. From this statement of theirs they wanted to lead their followers to believe that this Qur’ān too is a type of poetry; there is no need to get worried by regarding it to be a divine inspiration. Like their poets, this Prophet too after acclaiming fame of his eloquence and articulacy will one day succumb to the tide of fortune; it is not something that needs to be taken seriously and then accept that the punishment it is threatening them with is in fact certain to come.

21. The implication is that it is their arrogance which is making them say this; sense and reason have no role in it.

22. The actual words are: بَل لَّا يُؤْمِنُونَ. The verb here expresses intention. The implication is that they know full well that such a discourse can neither be produced by the Prophet (sws) nor by anyone else; however, they have decided that they will not accept it and hence are making so many foolish statements and excuses.

23. ie., a discourse of such majesty that when those who have a literary taste and are also aware of the style and eloquence of the Arabic language and of the tradition of its literary compositions read it, they clearly feel that it is not possible to produce a human discourse that can match it. It required that they present a discourse in which, like the Qur’ān, one can see God speaking in it; it should be a discourse that explains everything that is necessary for mankind and which has never been explained by any human being; it should guide them in affairs in which there is no other means of guidance; it is a discourse which is free of any contradiction of thought and is devoid of any reflection from the various states its speaker passed through; neither does it contain signs of any change of view and opinion; it is a discourse to which our intuition bears witness, which is corroborated by established facts derived from knowledge and reason, which enlivens dead hearts the way rain enlivens desolate terrains, which has the same majesty and grandeur felt in each and every word by every person who knows the language of the Qur’ān.

24. The implication is that their malady is lack of conviction otherwise they would have been inflicted with contradictory views. They believe that God is the creator of the heavens and the earth as well as of themselves but they do not understand how is the Hereafter something improbable? How can He who has been able to create the first time not be able to create again? If God, the Lord of the universe is their creator, then why will He not ask them whether they have fulfilled the purpose for which He created them? Why does He who has created them not possess the right to hold them accountable in the house He has built? How do they not fear Him Who can totally destroy them by merely signaling the earth to wobble? How do they not fear Him Who can ask the sky to rout them and cleanse the earth of their existence?

25. This is a severe blow to the arrogance of their haughty leaders who inebriated by their opulence would make fun of the Prophet (sws) and pay no heed to the warnings sounded by him.

26. The implication is that what can be more childish a belief than the suggestion that God has children and that too just daughters whose existence they cannot even tolerate in their houses and for their own selves.

27. This is an expression of wonder at the attitude of truth-evasion of the opponents: if the Prophet (sws) has some vested interest attached to them or if he had asked for some remuneration, then this could have been an understandable reason for their evasion; the truth is that they are being given this treasure free of cost and still they are not prepared to even listen to it.  Imām Amīn Ahsan Islāhī writes:

… The Arabs were ummī (not conversant with the sharī‘ah). As a result, they should have been seekers of God’s guidance particularly when, from the time of Ishmael (sws), they had been hearing the tradition that God would raise a prophet among them who would bring people into light from darkness and from whom all nations of the world would receive guidance. It was incumbent upon them that when a person from within them called them to the way of God, they pay heed to him and seriously reflect on what he said. However, contrary to this expectation, they adopted the opposite attitude. It is on this state of affairs that the Qur’an has expressed amazement. (Amīn Ahsan Islāhī, Tadabbur-i Qur’ān, vol. 8, 39)

28. They should remember that if this is the case, then it will only hasten their own doom and they will be caught in the noose of the rope they are throwing for others. Amīn Ahsan Islāhī has explained the warning hidden in this sentence in the following words:

The implication is that those who have evaded the truth and led people away from it contrive schemes against their own conscience, they cause no harm to those who are calling them to the truth; they only ruin their own selves. The path to salvation and success is only the one which the Almighty has revealed through his prophets and messengers. If a person adopts a different path, then in order to prove his own misguidance to be guidance, all the arguments he fashions in support of his flawed way and all the allegations he invents against those who are calling to the true path will still not be able to save him. When he encounters his fate, it will become evident to him that he reached this destination because of his own schemes and contrivances. (Amīn Ahsan Islāhī, Tadabbur-i Qur’ān, vol. 8, 40)

29. Found in this sentence is a subtle reference to the people of Thamūd as well. It is mentioned in the verse twenty four of Sūrah Ahqāf that when the punishment with which they were being warned descended over them, at that time too they remarked that these clouds had come to drench them.

30. This is a reference to the punishment which, before the Day of Judgement, in accordance with the established practice of God visits people who persist in denying the truth even after it has been conclusively communicated to them by messengers of God.

31. The actual words are: وَاصْبِرْ لِحُكْمِ رَبِّكَ. The preposition لِ in them evidences the fact that the patience they mention encompasses the meaning of waiting.

32. Every tasteful person can see how much assurance, comfort and affection is hidden in these words for the Prophet (sws)

33. ie., rise up from sleep. If the words حِينَ تَقُومُ are understood in the light of the seventy third verse of Sūrah Muzzammil in which the Prophet (sws) is directed to rise up to pray tahajjud, no other interpretation is possible. Verses 218-219 of Sūrah Shu‘arā also corroborate this interpretation. There too the co-ordination of تَقَلَّبُكَ فِي السَّاجِدِيْن to these words is a very clear indication of this.

34. This directive of offering the prayer occurs here as a means to acquire patience because whoever is guided to patience is guided because of God’s help and the sole way to obtain God’s help is to offer the prayer.

35. This is a reference to the stars about which it is said in Sūrah Mulk: they have been made رُجُومًا لِّلشَّيَاطِينِ (a bombardment of the devils, (67:6)). The implication is that by the very act of their falling these stars bear witness that they protect the pathways through which Gabriel passes with the Qur’ān. There is not the slightest possibility of any devil intervening in divine revelation; people should not try to reject it by regarding it to be a discourse inspired by the jinn or soothsayers. How can these devils access its sanctified presence; they are bombarded with meteors if they even try to come near it?

36. The word “companion” refers to the Prophet Muhammad (sws). After this, two words viz. ضَلَّ and غَوَى are used. The former refers to the deviation in which a person not knowing the right path starts to tread the wrong path; the latter refers to the deviation a person adopts because of a suggestion from one’s fancy and does so deliberately.

Muhammad (sws) is addressed in this verse by the word صَاحِبُكُمْ. This word actually proffers an argument. Amīn Ahsan Islāhī writes:

The word صَاحِب here is used for the Prophet (sws) and the addressed pronoun is for the Quraysh. They are told that the Prophet (sws) is their very close companion and not a stranger to them. They very well know his past and present as well as his character and conduct and his tastes and inclinations. Have they ever seen any urge in him that could raise the doubt in their mind that he has a proclivity for astrology and soothsaying? If a person has such a proclivity, it does not remain hidden from close companions for the whole of his life. However, it is very strange that what they have never witnessed in him for such a long time, they are now blaming him for once he has expressed his claim to be a prophet of God. The fact of the matter is that his whole life and his words bear witness to the fact that he has never been besmeared by any error that is the result of forgetfulness, base desires, intentional or unintentional planning. (Amīn Ahsan Islāhī, Tadabbur-i Qur’ān, vol. 8, 53)

37.That is what the soothsayers and astrologers say, say from their fancy; however, the source and fountainhead of the discourse of this Prophet (sws) is something else; it has nothing to do with his fancy or desire.

38.That is the angel who bought down revelation to the Prophet (sws) is endued with all the great qualities of head and heart, has an impeccable character and has a profound intellect. Amīn Ahsan Islāhī writes:

… There is absolutely no possibility that any other spirit influence or over-awe him or deceive or cause any confusion in the instruction of the book or that he himself commit any mistake or be afflicted with doubt or uncertainty. The Almighty has protected him from all such weaknesses so that he is able to discharge the responsibility entrusted to him with full honesty and sincerity. (Amīn Ahsan Islāhī, Tadabbur-i Qur’ān, vol. 8, 53)

39. The actual words are: الْأُفُقِ الْأَعْلَى. It refers to the horizon which is directly in front of a person’s line of sight. This is a mention of the first revelation and Gabriel’s meeting with the Prophet (sws). The implication is that he appeared in a stark and unambiguous way the way the full moon or the midday sun appears and the Prophet (sws) saw him with his open eyes.

40. This is a mention of the great attention and profound affection with which Gabriel taught the Prophet (sws) so that whatever guidance he is being given was fully heard and was understood by him.

41. This simile is in accordance with the taste of the Arabs and occurs to describe extreme proximity and nearness. The word أَوْ here is referring to the fact that the purpose is to merely allude to the proximity; the purpose is not to mention the exact distance; it could have been more or less.

42. This is a mention of the second meeting. It seems that after this, these meetings started to happen with great frequency and without any break. The implication is that this observation made by the Prophet (sws) did not take place just once so that people may regard it a flight of fancy or some misunderstanding. He also saw Gabriel again and at this instance too Gabriel was in his real form. It is said that this meeting took place at sidrah al-muntahā (the farthest lote-tree). Imām Amīn Ahsan Islāhī writes:

The place of the farthest lote-tree is the one where this world of ours ends. It seems that this lote-tree divides our world from the divine realm which is beyond our observation. Neither are we aware of the boundaries of these two worlds nor of the reality of this sign called the lote-tree which bifurcates the two. These things belong to the category of the mutashābihāt. Hence as per the directive of the Qur’ān, it is essential to profess faith in them and one should not try to determine their real form and shape. Only God knows their real form.  The knowledge of those who have sound knowledge increases through such things. People who make efforts to try to find out their real form and shape, falter and go astray. (Amīn Ahsan Islāhī, Tadabbur-i Qur’ān, vol. 8, 56)

43. This refers to the Paradise in which the believers will be entertained initially. It is the starting point of the next world. It is evident from this that this observation of the Prophet (sws) took place at the point where this world and the next world meet.

44. This style shows that at that time such was the extent of divine disclosures and manifestations on the lote-tree that words are unable to portray them.

45. In spite of the great extent of divine disclosures the sight of the Prophet (sws) was neither dazed nor crossed the limits; in fact, he saw them with full concentration, attention and assurance.

46. No details are provided of these signs; hence neither is it possible for words to describe them nor can they be understood by our intellect and imagination. However, it is evident from the words of this verse that these signs were beyond the ones which we observe in the world within us and that around us.

What is discussed uptil here is summarized in the following words by Imām Amīn Ahsan Islāhī:

People who by regarding the Qur’ān to be a product of soothsaying and astrology wanted to belittle its status are addressed and told:

1. They should not regard the Day of Judgement which the Qur’ān informs them of to be something ordinary. The Qur’ān is not at all like the nonsensical uttering of their soothsayers and astrologers that has been concocted by its presenter. It is in fact a revelation from God which He has delivered to a special servant of His through His loftiest angel. The purpose is to fully inform them of this day before its advent.

 2. The angel who has brought down this divine revelation is held in high esteem by God and that is why he has been selected by God for this task. He is the most trustworthy; he cannot show dishonesty in what he has been entrusted with; he is also very powerful and no one can dare overpower or over-awe him; he has been blessed with all high moral attributes and intellectual abilities and hence there is no possibility that he may be afflicted with any misconception or someone may deceive him or that he may show bias to someone or unjustly oppose anyone.

3. This angel was twice seen by the Prophet (sws) very clearly. In the first instance, he saw him in the higher horizon and in the second near the farthest lote-tree. There is absolutely no possibility that this observation that he has stated to them be a product of his fancy.

4. The angel taught the Prophet (sws) the way an affectionate teacher instructs his pupil by going near him and bending over him. The Prophet (sws) fully grasped and understood this instruction. It is not that he heard some words coming from a distant source of which he was not sure what he heard and understood. (Amīn Ahsan Islāhī, Tadabbur-i Qur’ān, vol. 8, 58)


47. This question has a ring of humiliation and wonder in it: what is the comparison between Gabriel and his extra-ordinary manly traits and these deities which these people regard to be daughters of God. It will become evident from succeeding verses that these were idols of angels which the Idolaters of Arabia worshipped after regarding them to be daughters of God. Their greatness was acclaimed by all the Idolaters and about them they believed: تلك الغرانيق العلى وإن شفاعتهن لترتجى (these are deities of exalted status and there is full hope that their recommendations will be accepted). The name اللاّتْ (al-Lāt) is a distorted form of الآلِهَة (al-Ālihah). Just as the Arabs called the greatest of the worshipped as الله they had adopted the name الآلِهَة for their greatest deity which because of its repeated use had converted to اللاّتْ. The word عُزّى is the feminine form of عَزِيْز (‘Azīz) and أَعَزَّ (A‘azza). It is evident that it has been kept because of عَزِيْز being a prominent attribute of God, The word مَنَات is from the rootمنية  which would mean a deity coming close to which is greatly cherished or which is a means to grant wishes. Imām Amīn Ahsan Islāhī:

It is also evident from the Qur’ān that though these three deities were regarded as the most exalted in the eyes of Arabs yet between them there were gradations in status. Lāt and ‘Uzzā had the highest status. Though Manāt was also regarded as very exalted yet it was lower in rank to the other two. Thus the Qur’ān has qualified it with the attributes: ثالثة and أخرى. The first of these refers to its placement amongst the highest of the deities and the second of them informs us of its relative rank as compared to the rest of the two: though it belongs to their category yet it is second in stature to them. The words أولى and أخرى are known in Arabic to express rank and status and have been used in this sense in the Qur’ān as well. (Amīn Ahsan Islāhī, Tadabbur-i Qur’ān, vol. 8, 61)

48. The style of these sentences is sarcastic. The implication is that in the very first place ascribing sons and daughters to God is extreme foolishness. However, they have taken another unjust step and ascribed to him what they regard as a means of humiliation for their own selves. This means that the rank and status of God is even below that of their own selves.

49. The style has changed in this sentence; the Almighty has adopted an indirect address here in order to censure them for their deprivation and wretchedness and express sorrow on the lowliness of their thoughts and ideas. The implication is that there can be no greater misfortune for them than the fact that in spite of the advent of clear guidance from God to them in the form of the Qur’ān they are insisting on following conjectures and fancies. This has been said because generally it is these two things which are the source of polytheism. One’s fancy wants that some easy way be adopted to procure the nearness of God and to attain Paradise and Satan in order fulfil this desire arrives with a whole mythology of conjectures and speculations that such and such has such and such a status before God and thus should be made a deity; as a result the good fortunes of this world and of the next will come their way.

50. ie., they do not believe in the Hereafter in the manner which they should. In their opinion, it is a belief but not a day on which the perfect justice of God shall manifest itself and on which each person shall be rewarded or punished commensurate with his faith and deeds. Thus it is this for very reason that they are prepared to believe in that even if the Hereafter takes place their deities will shield them from any punishment from God.

51. The actual word is: الظَّن. Here it is used in contrast to knowledge. It refers to those things which neither intellect and human nature nor divine revelation bear witness to because it is these sources through which man has received knowledge.

52. ie., the Qur’ān because it reminds man of the Hereafter and of its consequences.

53. This is a reference to the real reason of their attitude of indifference.

54. What is implied is that they can only see the apparent side of this world and are so narrow-minded that are lured away by it and have thereby become indifferent to the eternal kingdom of God which is the inner side of this world and to the existence of which every object of this world bears witness.

55. ie., if God knows this, then He will deal with each person in the manner he deserves.

56. Here the consequence of refutation of polytheism and intercession made earlier is presented. The implication is that those who have become heedless because of relying on their alleged deities and intercessors are in self-deception. To God belongs the jurisdiction of the heavens and the earth. No one can influence His decisions. When these people reach His presence, they will find none except Him as their helper and protector.

57. ie., the evil doers will get only the reward of their evil deeds because this is a requirement of justice. However, God is gracious and magnanimous; He will not merely reward the righteous for their pious deeds; He will bless them with many more favours. The words “good reward” occur to explain this very fact.

58. ie., good reward shall be given to them because of this attitude of theirs; for this a person’s intercession, exaltedness or superior lineage will be of no avail to anyone. It is essential to abstain from excesses committed against life, wealth and honour and from fornication; these are the major sins. Those who abstain from them are never satisfied on committing minor sins. However, if they stumble into a sin, the Almighty blesses them with the urge to repent and mend their ways and they purify themselves. The actual words used for this are: إِلَّا اللَّمَمَ. Imām Amīn Ahsan Islāhī while explaining them writes:

The words ألممام and لمم mean to stay at place for a short period. The meaning of لمم ascribed to Mujāhid and Ibn ‘Abbās (rta) is that a person stumbles into a sin but then soon comes out of this state. What is meant is that it is not required of a person to lead a sinless life. A person may at times while succumbing to emotions and desires commit a sin; however, God requires of him that he should have such a vigilant sense of faith in him that a sin should not embrace his life so much that it becomes difficult for him to give it up; such should be the level of this vigilance that when a person trips into a sin, he reforms himself as soon as he realizes it. God will forgive people who lead such lives; vast is His mercy. (Amīn Ahsan Islāhī, Tadabbur-i Qur’ān, vol. 8, 71)

59. ie., they should realize who they are and what their status is. A creature first created from water and mud and then from a trivial drop of fluid does not deserve to think of himself as an elevated being and demand any privilege. This is said to them because the addressees were the custodians of the House of God and the progeny of Abraham (sws) and Ishmael (sws) and because of this had false notions the way Muslims of today have such false notions. These Muslims by regarding themselves to be a forgiven nation have forsaken all responsibilities related to their faith and deeds. Imām Amīn Ahsan Islāhī writes:

… The matter reached the extent that there were many families among them in which if a person was born he was thought to be guaranteed Paradise and there were many graveyards in which if a person was buried he was regarded to be worthy of the eternal kingdom regardless of his beliefs and deeds. (Amīn Ahsan Islāhī, Tadabbur-i Qur’ān, vol. 8, 73)

60. The actual word is: أَكْدَى. It is from the idiomالحافر  أَكْدَى. Imām Amīn Ahsan Islāhī writes:

الحافر  أَكْدَى means that such a big rock was encountered by a digger that breaking it was difficult for him. Portrayed here is the general attitude of the miserly: if they spend out of compulsion, they spend very little and at that time are overcome by stinginess so much that they clench their fists and if anyone tries to urge them to spend, they launch an onslaught on him and remark: how much should we spend; get aside; I have already squandered a lot of money for this purpose. (Amīn Ahsan Islāhī, Tadabbur-i Qur’ān, vol. 8, 75)

61. From the words أَفَرَأَيْتَ الَّذِي till here is a parable of the character of people who claimed that they will receive a lofty status but were not prepared to spend from the sustenance given to them by God for His cause. And if ever they would spend, they would do so in a very perfunctory manner. Just as the demonstrative nouns الَّذِي and الَّتِي are used in Arabic to point to specific characters, they also refer to characters of a parable. It is evident from contextual indications, that the word الَّذِي is used in this latter sense. Deliberation on the style will show that it has a ring of sarcasm and humiliation in it. The implication is that these foolish people should be observed; they claim a high position with God but even if they show some courage to spend in His way, they stop after spending a little. It is as if they had set out to dig the earth and a big rock came their way cutting which was not possible for them.

62. ie., the scriptures in which the teachings of the prophets have been compiled. Though it is the Quraysh who are primarily addressed here, in those times the People of the Book too were discussed in various capacities. This is the reason that the scripture of Moses (sws) too is mentioned with that of Abraham (sws). Here however an additional attribute of Abraham is cited: he who was befittingly loyal. What is the reason for this? Imām Amīn Ahsan Islāhī has explained this. He writes:

The purpose of mentioning this attribute of Abraham (sws) to both the Quraysh and the People of the Book is to admonish them that the high status achieved by Abraham (sws) in this world and in the next was the result of showing complete obedience and faithfulness to God. On the other hand, their state of affairs is that without being obedient to God they want to win high favours merely because they are his descendents. (Amīn Ahsan Islāhī, Tadabbur-i Qur’ān, vol. 8, 76)

63. This not only is a refutation of all the baseless concepts of intercession but also a clear statement of the fact that in the Hereafter, the good or bad deed of a person cannot benefit or harm someone except if his effort has a role whether directly or indirectly in his good or bad deed. Thus everyone must be well aware that in the Hereafter no one will be able to benefit anyone else; everyone will have to carry his own burden and whatever a person gets there will be the result of his own deeds; neither could Noah (sws) save his son nor Abraham’s supplication could be of any avail to his father nor could Lot (sws) become a shield for his wife.

About repentance and seeking forgiveness however, it should remain in consideration that this is a person’s own effort. Thus the intercession which the Qur’ān validates is the one in which a person seeking forgiveness from the Almighty is joined by someone in beseeching God for this forgiveness. is called intercession. This is the real meaning of intercession. Thus without a person first taking the initiative in seeking forgiveness from God, it has no basis. A person who intercedes for someone is one who seeks forgiveness together with him and is another voice raised for this purpose and he in fact becomes a means for him in imploring and supplicating before God. The Qur’ān has explained some further aspects of this intercession:

Firstly, only God has the authority of intercession. Without His permission, no one can intercede for anyone. So much so, even the angels who are very close to Him cannot take the initiative in saying anything on their own. Thus it is essential to first please God so that intercession is allowed by Him and then also accepted.

Secondly, even after being permitted by God to speak, intercession shall be possible only for those about whom God wants. No one shall be able to say anything about anyone out of his own will:

Thirdly, the person who is acceptable to God to be interceded for – about him too whatever is allowed to be said will have to be the absolute truth.

64. That is no one should remain in the misconception that after dying someone other than God will become his protector or helper and save him from the accountability of God. Every one will return to God only and all His verdicts will be implemented the way He wants without any intervention from anyone. 

65. On the previous verses ended the reference to scriptures of Moses (sws) and Abraham (sws). From here onwards, the discourse is extended as per the general style of the Qur’ān. Imām Amīn Ahsan Islāhī writes:

… There are several examples in the Qur’ān in which a statement is cited and then certain additions are made in it which though are not part of the statement yet are based on it. This explains the whole scenario and the discourse is brought in accordance with the circumstances. (Amīn Ahsan Islāhī, Tadabbur-i Qur’ān, vol. 8, 80)

66. Sirius is a star that appears in the spring season. The Idolaters of Arabia regarded it to be very blessed and would attribute the lushness of spring as well as their own trade activities to it. The implication is that when sorrow and happiness, death and life, creation and planning, poverty and affluence – even life after death is in His hands, so on what basis can someone else become their protector and on what grounds should they return to someone else? This abundance of wealth and riches which has induced them to become arrogant is indeed given to them by God. Sirius has no role in this. The Lord of Sirius too is God.

67. The ‘Ād here are called the ancient ‘Ād because the Thamūd are from among their descendents and they are called the second ‘Ād.

68. The actual word used is: الْمُؤْتَفِكَةُ. It exactly signifies the punishment that visited the people of Lot (sws). The Qur’ān mentions that the Almighty sent a dust-laden wind on them which turned into a furious storm and He then hurled a hail of stones on them such that their houses crashed to the ground.

69. This style is adopted when a situation which is beyond words is to be depicted. 

70. ie., the Qur’ān. The sūrah began with the mention of the Qur’ān and because of this the antecedent of the demonstrative noun does not  occur here. 

71. This is a reference to the punishment which necessarily visits the nations of messengers who deny them.

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