View Printable Version :: Email to a Friend
Surah Ma’idah (32-63)
Qur'anic Exegesis
Javed Ahmad Ghamidi
(Tr. by:Dr. Shehzad Saleem)



بسم الله الرحمن الرحيم


مِنْ أَجْلِ ذَلِكَ كَتَبْنَا عَلَى بَنِي إِسْرَائِيلَ أَنَّهُ مَن قَتَلَ نَفْسًا بِغَيْرِ نَفْسٍ أَوْ فَسَادٍ فِي الأَرْضِ فَكَأَنَّمَا قَتَلَ النَّاسَ جَمِيعًا وَمَنْ أَحْيَاهَا فَكَأَنَّمَا أَحْيَا النَّاسَ جَمِيعًا وَلَقَدْ جَاء تْهُمْ رُسُلُنَا بِالبَيِّنَاتِ ثُمَّ إِنَّ كَثِيرًا مِّنْهُم بَعْدَ ذَلِكَ فِي الأَرْضِ لَمُسْرِفُونَ (٣٢)

It is this [rebelliousness of man] because of which [when We gave the sharī‘ah to Moses] We made it mandatory [in it] for the Israelites that he who killed a human being without the latter being guilty of killing another or of spreading anarchy in the land should be looked upon as if he killed all mankind, and he who saved one life should be looked upon as if he saved all mankind.1 [Then not only this; moreover] this also is a reality that [to conclusively communicate the truth to them] Our messengers came to them with very clear signs; however, in spite of this, there are many among them who transgress bounds.2 (32)


إِنَّمَا جَزَاء الَّذِينَ يُحَارِبُونَ اللّهَ وَرَسُولَهُ وَيَسْعَوْنَ فِي الأَرْضِ فَسَادًا أَن يُقَتَّلُواْ أَوْ يُصَلَّبُواْ أَوْ تُقَطَّعَ أَيْدِيهِمْ وَأَرْجُلُهُم مِّنْ خِلافٍ أَوْ يُنفَوْاْ مِنَ الأَرْضِ ذَلِكَ لَهُمْ خِزْيٌ فِي الدُّنْيَا وَلَهُمْ فِي الآخِرَةِ عَذَابٌ عَظِيمٌ (٣٣) إِلاَّ الَّذِينَ تَابُواْ مِن قَبْلِ أَن تَقْدِرُواْ عَلَيْهِمْ فَاعْلَمُواْ أَنَّ اللّهَ غَفُورٌ رَّحِيمٌ (٣٤)

[They should be told that] the punishments of those who wage war against God and His Messengerand strive to spread anarchy in the land3 are to execute them in an exemplary way4 or to crucify them5 or to amputate their hands and feet from opposite sides6 or to banish them from the land.7 Such is their disgrace in this world,8 and in the Hereafter, theirs will be an awful doom except those who repent before you overpower them; so [do not commit excess against them and] you should understand well that God is Oft-Forgiving, Ever-Merciful.9   (33-34)


يَا أَيُّهَا الَّذِينَ آمَنُواْ اتَّقُواْ اللّهَ وَابْتَغُواْ إِلَيهِ الْوَسِيلَةَ وَجَاهِدُواْ فِي سَبِيلِهِ لَعَلَّكُمْ تُفْلِحُونَ (٣٥) إِنَّ الَّذِينَ كَفَرُواْ لَوْ أَنَّ لَهُم مَّا فِي الأَرْضِ جَمِيعًا وَمِثْلَهُ مَعَهُ لِيَفْتَدُواْ بِهِ مِنْ عَذَابِ يَوْمِ الْقِيَامَةِ مَا تُقُبِّلَ مِنْهُمْ وَلَهُمْ عَذَابٌ أَلِيمٌ (٣٦) يُرِيدُونَ أَن يَخْرُجُواْ مِنَ النَّارِ وَمَا هُم بِخَارِجِينَ مِنْهَا وَلَهُمْ عَذَابٌ مُّقِيمٌ (٣٧)

[This is the sharī‘ah of God] Believers! Fear God [about it] and seek His nearness and [for this] continue to struggle for His cause10 so that you may prosper. As for those who [in spite of conclusive communication of the truth from God are still] disbelievers, if they are offered all the riches of the earth and as much besides to redeem themselves from the torment of the Day of Judgement, it shall not be accepted from them and for them is a woeful punishment. They would like to get out from it but they shall never be able to. For them is an eternal punishment [there]. (35-37)


وَالسَّارِقُ وَالسَّارِقَةُ فَاقْطَعُواْ أَيْدِيَهُمَا جَزَاء بِمَا كَسَبَا نَكَالاً مِّنَ اللّهِ وَاللّهُ عَزِيزٌ حَكِيمٌ (٣٨) فَمَن تَابَ مِن بَعْدِ ظُلْمِهِ وَأَصْلَحَ فَإِنَّ اللّهَ يَتُوبُ عَلَيْهِ إِنَّ اللّهَ غَفُورٌ رَّحِيمٌ (٣٩) أَلَمْ تَعْلَمْ أَنَّ اللّهَ لَهُ مُلْكُ السَّمَاوَاتِ وَالأَرْضِ يُعَذِّبُ مَن يَشَاء وَيَغْفِرُ لِمَن يَشَاء وَاللّهُ عَلَى كُلِّ شَيْءٍ قَدِيرٌ (٤٠)

[This is the sharī‘ah of God; hold fast to it.] And as to the thief, male or female, cut off their hands11 as a reward of their own deeds, and as an exemplary punishment from God.12 And [remember that] God is Dominant [over all] and very Wise.13 But whoever repents and mends his ways after committing this crime shall be pardoned by God. Indeed, God is Forgiving and Ever-Merciful.14 Don’t you know that the kingdom of the heavens and the earth belongs to God. He will punish whomever He intends and forgive whomever He intends [according to His law and wisdom]. He has power over all things.15  (38-40)


يَا أَيُّهَا الرَّسُولُ لاَ يَحْزُنكَ الَّذِينَ يُسَارِعُونَ فِي الْكُفْرِ مِنَ الَّذِينَ قَالُواْ آمَنَّا بِأَفْوَاهِهِمْ وَلَمْ تُؤْمِن قُلُوبُهُمْ وَمِنَ الَّذِينَ هِادُواْ سَمَّاعُونَ لِلْكَذِبِ سَمَّاعُونَ لِقَوْمٍ آخَرِينَ لَمْ يَأْتُوكَ يُحَرِّفُونَ الْكَلِمَ مِن بَعْدِ مَوَاضِعِهِ يَقُولُونَ إِنْ أُوتِيتُمْ هَـذَا فَخُذُوهُ وَإِن لَّمْ تُؤْتَوْهُ فَاحْذَرُواْ وَمَن يُرِدِ اللّهُ فِتْنَتَهُ فَلَن تَمْلِكَ لَهُ مِنَ اللّهِ شَيْئًا أُوْلَـئِكَ الَّذِينَ لَمْ يُرِدِ اللّهُ أَن يُطَهِّرَ قُلُوبَهُمْ لَهُمْ غ فِي الدُّنْيَا خِزْيٌ وَلَهُمْ فِي الآخِرَةِ عَذَابٌ عَظِيمٌ (٤١) سَمَّاعُونَ لِلْكَذِبِ أَكَّالُونَ لِلسُّحْتِ فَإِن جَآؤُوكَ فَاحْكُم بَيْنَهُم أَوْ أَعْرِضْ عَنْهُمْ وَإِن تُعْرِضْ عَنْهُمْ فَلَن يَضُرُّوكَ شَيْئًا وَإِنْ حَكَمْتَ فَاحْكُم بَيْنَهُمْ بِالْقِسْطِ إِنَّ اللّهَ يُحِبُّ الْمُقْسِطِينَ (٤٢) وَكَيْفَ يُحَكِّمُونَكَ وَعِندَهُمُ التَّوْرَاةُ فِيهَا حُكْمُ اللّهِ ثُمَّ يَتَوَلَّوْنَ مِن بَعْدِ ذَلِكَ وَمَا أُوْلَـئِكَ بِالْمُؤْمِنِينَ (٤٣)

O Prophet!16 Let not those who are competing with one another in rejecting [the shrīa‘ah of God] put you in grief; those who say with their tongues “We embrace faith,” even though there is no faith in their hearts and those also who have turned into Jews. They keep their ears tuned to lies – the lies of those people who are a separate group from them who have never come to you.17 Even after the context and occasion of what is said is ascertained, they change it from its real meaning.18 They say: “If this is the decision of your case, then accept it and if this is not so then stay away from it.”19 [They are in a state of trial] and whoever God wants to inflict with trial [he is definitely inflicted with it] because you cannot do anything for him in opposition to God.20 It is these whose hearts God did not want to purify.21 For them is humiliation in this world and also a great punishment in the Hereafter. Their ears are tuned to hearing lies and [to bear false witness] consume what is unlawful.22 Thus, if they come to you [for verdicts], it is up to you to give a verdict or evade them. If you evade them, they will not be able to inflict any harm on you23 and if you give your verdict, then it is essential that you be just. God likes those who give a just verdict. How do they come to you for a verdict when they already have the Torah with them which contains God’s own verdict?24 Then after turning [to you] for verdict they even defy it as well.25 (41-43)


إِنَّا أَنزَلْنَا التَّوْرَاةَ فِيهَا هُدًى وَنُورٌ يَحْكُمُ بِهَا النَّبِيُّونَ الَّذِينَ أَسْلَمُواْ لِلَّذِينَ هَادُواْ وَالرَّبَّانِيُّونَ وَالأَحْبَارُ بِمَا اسْتُحْفِظُواْ مِن كِتَابِ اللّهِ وَكَانُواْ عَلَيْهِ شُهَدَاء فَلاَ تَخْشَوُاْ النَّاسَ وَاخْشَوْنِ وَلاَ تَشْتَرُواْ بِآيَاتِي ثَمَنًا قَلِيلاً وَمَن لَّمْ يَحْكُم بِمَا أَنزَلَ اللّهُ فَأُوْلَـئِكَ هُمُ الْكَافِرُونَ (٤٤) وَكَتَبْنَا عَلَيْهِمْ فِيهَا أَنَّ النَّفْسَ بِالنَّفْسِ وَالْعَيْنَ بِالْعَيْنِ وَالأَنفَ بِالأَنفِ وَالأُذُنَ بِالأُذُنِ وَالسِّنَّ بِالسِّنِّ وَالْجُرُوحَ قِصَاصٌ فَمَن تَصَدَّقَ بِهِ فَهُوَ كَفَّارَةٌ لَّهُ وَمَن لَّمْ يَحْكُم بِمَا أنزَلَ اللّهُ فَأُوْلَـئِكَ هُمُ الظَّالِمُونَ (٤٥)

 We have revealed this Torah, in which there is guidance and light.26 Through it the obedient prophets of God,27 the rabbis and the jurists delivered verdicts for the Jews because they had been made custodians of this book of God and witnesses to it.28 Then [they were also directed about it that:] “Do not fear people; fear Me and do not sell my verses for a paltry sum,29 and [bear in mind that] those who do not judge according to the law revealed by God, it is they who are the rejecters.”30 And in this Book, We enjoined on them: life for life, eye for eye, nose for nose, ear for ear, tooth for tooth and similarly there is qisās for other wounds also.31 Then he who forgoes, then this shall be an atonement for his own self.32 And [this also that] those who do not judge according to the law of God, it is they who are the wrongdoers.33  (44-45)


وَقَفَّيْنَا عَلَى آثَارِهِم بِعَيسَى ابْنِ مَرْيَمَ مُصَدِّقًا لِّمَا بَيْنَ يَدَيْهِ مِنَ التَّوْرَاةِ وَآتَيْنَاهُ الإِنجِيلَ فِيهِ هُدًى وَنُورٌ وَمُصَدِّقًا لِّمَا بَيْنَ يَدَيْهِ مِنَ التَّوْرَاةِ وَهُدًى وَمَوْعِظَةً لِّلْمُتَّقِينَ (٤٦) وَلْيَحْكُمْ أَهْلُ الإِنجِيلِ بِمَا أَنزَلَ اللّهُ فِيهِ وَمَن لَّمْ يَحْكُم بِمَا أَنزَلَ اللّهُ فَأُوْلَـئِكَ هُمُ الْفَاسِقُونَ (٤٧)

In the footsteps34 of these [messengers] We sent forth Jesus son of Mary, who corroborated the Torah already present. And We gave him the Gospel in which there is guidance and light. And it also corroborated the Torah already present before it: a guide and an admonition for the God-fearing with the directive:35 let those who follow the Gospel judge according to what God has revealed therein. And those who do not judge according to the law revealed by God, it is they who are the defiant. (46-47)


وَأَنزَلْنَا إِلَيْكَ الْكِتَابَ بِالْحَقِّ مُصَدِّقًا لِّمَا بَيْنَ يَدَيْهِ مِنَ الْكِتَابِ وَمُهَيْمِنًا عَلَيْهِ فَاحْكُم بَيْنَهُم بِمَا أَنزَلَ اللّهُ وَلاَ تَتَّبِعْ أَهْوَاءهُمْ عَمَّا جَاءكَ مِنَ الْحَقِّ لِكُلٍّ جَعَلْنَا مِنكُمْ شِرْعَةً وَمِنْهَاجًا وَلَوْ شَاء اللّهُ لَجَعَلَكُمْ أُمَّةً وَاحِدَةً وَلَـكِن لِّيَبْلُوَكُمْ فِي مَآ آتَاكُم فَاسْتَبِقُوا الخَيْرَاتِ إِلَى الله مَرْجِعُكُمْ جَمِيعًا فَيُنَبِّئُكُم بِمَا كُنتُمْ فِيهِ تَخْتَلِفُونَ (٤٨) وَأَنِ احْكُم بَيْنَهُم بِمَآ أَنزَلَ اللّهُ وَلاَ تَتَّبِعْ أَهْوَاءهُمْ وَاحْذَرْهُمْ أَن يَفْتِنُوكَ عَن بَعْضِ مَا أَنزَلَ اللّهُ إِلَيْكَ فَإِن تَوَلَّوْاْ فَاعْلَمْ أَنَّمَا يُرِيدُ اللّهُ أَن يُصِيبَهُم بِبَعْضِ ذُنُوبِهِمْ وَإِنَّ كَثِيرًا مِّنَ النَّاسِ لَفَاسِقُونَ (٤٩) أَفَحُكْمَ الْجَاهِلِيَّةِ يَبْغُونَ وَمَنْ أَحْسَنُ مِنَ اللّهِ حُكْمًا لِّقَوْمٍ يُوقِنُونَ (٥٠)

Then [O Prophet!] We have revealed to you this Book with truth in corroboration of the Book before it,36 and standing as a guardian over it.37 Therefore, give judgement among them according to the guidance revealed by God, and do not yield to their whims by swerving from the truth revealed to you.38 For each of you, We have ordained a sharī‘ah that is a line of action.39  Had God pleased, He could have made of you one community: [but he did not do this] because He wanted to try you by what He has blessed you with.40 So, try to outdo one another in good deeds.41 To God shall you all [one day] return. Then He shall disclose upon you all your differences. [This is the correct attitude as far as religion and sharī‘ah are concerned] and this also that you judge them according the law revealed by God and not follow their desires and beware of them lest they turn you away from some part of the guidance which God has revealed to you.42 Then if they show aversion, then be informed that God wants to punish them for some of their sins.43  And in reality, a great many of them are defiant. [Leaving aside the sharī‘ah of God], do they then wish to be judged by pagan laws?44 Even though who is a better judge than God for those who have conviction in [God and the Hereafter]? (48-50)


يَا أَيُّهَا الَّذِينَ آمَنُواْ لاَ تَتَّخِذُواْ الْيَهُودَ وَالنَّصَارَى أَوْلِيَاء بَعْضُهُمْ أَوْلِيَاء بَعْضٍ وَمَن يَتَوَلَّهُم مِّنكُمْ فَإِنَّهُ مِنْهُمْ إِنَّ اللّهَ لاَ يَهْدِي الْقَوْمَ الظَّالِمِينَ (٥١) فَتَرَى الَّذِينَ فِي قُلُوبِهِم مَّرَضٌ يُسَارِعُونَ فِيهِمْ يَقُولُونَ نَخْشَى أَن تُصِيبَنَا دَآئِرَةٌ فَعَسَى اللّهُ أَن يَأْتِيَ بِالْفَتْحِ أَوْ أَمْرٍ مِّنْ عِندِهِ فَيُصْبِحُواْ عَلَى مَا أَسَرُّواْ فِي أَنْفُسِهِمْ نَادِمِينَ (٥٢) وَيَقُولُ الَّذِينَ آمَنُواْ أَهَـؤُلاء الَّذِينَ أَقْسَمُواْ بِاللّهِ جَهْدَ أَيْمَانِهِمْ إِنَّهُمْ لَمَعَكُمْ حَبِطَتْ أَعْمَالُهُمْ فَأَصْبَحُواْ خَاسِرِينَ (٥٣)

Believers, take not these Jews and Christians for your friends.45 They are friends with one another46 and [remember that] if anyone befriends them [in spite of this warning] then he shall be counted among them. God never guides such people who wrong their souls.47 Thus you see those who have the malady [of hypocrisy] in their hearts hastening to befriend them. They say: “We fear that we might be inflicted by a calamity.”48 But it may well be49 that God grants you victory50 or reveal something else from Himself51 so that they may regret what they conceal in their hearts. [Be convinced that this is what will happen with them] and the believers [at that time] will say: “Are they the same ones who would vehemently swear oaths by God to say that they are with you.” [Alas!] all their deeds came to nothing and they ended up losers.52   (51-53)



يَا أَيُّهَا الَّذِينَ آمَنُواْ مَن يَرْتَدَّ مِنكُمْ عَن دِينِهِ فَسَوْفَ يَأْتِي اللّهُ بِقَوْمٍ يُحِبُّهُمْ وَيُحِبُّونَهُ أَذِلَّةٍ عَلَى الْمُؤْمِنِينَ أَعِزَّةٍ عَلَى الْكَافِرِينَ يُجَاهِدُونَ فِي سَبِيلِ اللّهِ وَلاَ يَخَافُونَ لَوْمَةَ لآئِمٍ ذَلِكَ فَضْلُ اللّهِ يُؤْتِيهِ مَن يَشَاء وَاللّهُ وَاسِعٌ عَلِيمٌ (٥٤)

Believers! [This is the attitude of renouncing religion. So remember that], he among you who renounces his religion [God does not care about him] because soon God will bring forth people whom God will love and who will love God;53  who are soft to the believers and very stern to these disbelievers;54 they will fight for the cause of God and [in this matter] will not care about the reproaches of a reproacher.55  Such is the grace of God. He will bestow it [according to His law and wisdom] to whomsoever He desires.56 God is munificent and all-knowing. (54)


إِنَّمَا وَلِيُّكُمُ اللّهُ وَرَسُولُهُ وَالَّذِينَ آمَنُواْ الَّذِينَ يُقِيمُونَ الصَّلاَةَ وَيُؤْتُونَ الزَّكَاةَ وَهُمْ رَاكِعُونَ (٥٥) وَمَن يَتَوَلَّ اللّهَ وَرَسُولَهُ وَالَّذِينَ آمَنُواْ فَإِنَّ حِزْبَ اللّهِ هُمُ الْغَالِبُونَ (٥٦)

[They are not your friends]. Your real friends are God and His Messenger and those believers who with humility and submission attend diligently to the prayer and pay zakāh.57 And those who befriend God and His Messenger and true believers [shall be dominant]58 because it is God’s faction which will be dominant.59 (55-56) 



يَا أَيُّهَا الَّذِينَ آمَنُواْ لاَ تَتَّخِذُواْ الَّذِينَ اتَّخَذُواْ دِينَكُمْ هُزُوًا وَلَعِبًا مِّنَ الَّذِينَ أُوتُواْ الْكِتَابَ مِن قَبْلِكُمْ وَالْكُفَّارَ أَوْلِيَاء وَاتَّقُواْ اللّهَ إِن كُنتُم مُّؤْمِنِينَ (٥٧) وَإِذَا نَادَيْتُمْ إِلَى الصَّلاَةِ اتَّخَذُوهَا هُزُوًا وَلَعِبًا ذَلِكَ بِأَنَّهُمْ قَوْمٌ لاَّ يَعْقِلُونَ (٥٨) قُلْ يَا أَهْلَ الْكِتَابِ هَلْ تَنقِمُونَ مِنَّا إِلاَّ أَنْ آمَنَّا بِاللّهِ وَمَا أُنزِلَ إِلَيْنَا وَمَا أُنزِلَ مِن قَبْلُ وَأَنَّ أَكْثَرَكُمْ فَاسِقُونَ (٥٩) قُلْ هَلْ أُنَبِّئُكُم بِشَرٍّ مِّن ذَلِكَ مَثُوبَةً عِندَ اللّهِ مَن لَّعَنَهُ اللّهُ وَغَضِبَ عَلَيْهِ وَجَعَلَ مِنْهُمُ الْقِرَدَةَ وَالْخَنَازِيرَ وَعَبَدَ الطَّاغُوتَ أُوْلَـئِكَ شَرٌّ مَّكَاناً وَأَضَلُّ عَن سَوَاء السَّبِيلِ (٦٠)

Believers! Do not befriend those from among the people who were given the Book before you who made your religion a jest and an amusement nor befriend the disbelievers and fear God if you are true believers.60 [Don’t you see that] when you give the call to the prayer, they make fun of it and make it an amusement.61 This is because they are devoid of understanding.62 Tell them: “People of the Book! Are you venting your anger on us merely because we professed faith in God and in that which was revealed to us and in that which was revealed before us and because most of you are disobedient.”63 Tell them: “Shall I inform you of people who will have with God a fate worse [that what you contemplate for us]?”64 They are those who God has cursed, with whom He has been angry, from among whom He made apes and swine,65 and who worshipped Satan. Worse is their state and have strayed very far from the right path.66 (57-60)


وَإِذَا جَآؤُوكُمْ قَالُوَاْ آمَنَّا وَقَد دَّخَلُواْ بِالْكُفْرِ وَهُمْ قَدْ خَرَجُواْ بِهِ وَاللّهُ أَعْلَمُ بِمَا كَانُواْ يَكْتُمُونَ (٦١) وَتَرَى كَثِيرًا مِّنْهُمْ يُسَارِعُونَ فِي الإِثْمِ وَالْعُدْوَانِ وَأَكْلِهِمُ السُّحْتَ لَبِئْسَ مَا كَانُواْ يَعْمَلُونَ (٦٢) لَوْلاَ يَنْهَاهُمُ الرَّبَّانِيُّونَ وَالأَحْبَارُ عَن قَوْلِهِمُ الإِثْمَ وَأَكْلِهِمُ السُّحْتَ لَبِئْسَ مَا كَانُواْ يَصْنَعُونَ (٦٣)

When they come to you they say: “We have embraced faith,” even though with disbelief they come and with disbelief they depart and [do not know that] God knows full well what they conceal in their hearts.67 You see that most of them are deeply involved in usurping rights, committing excesses and corruption.68 How evil is what they are doing! Why don’t their rabbis and scholars stop them from saying what is sinful and from corruption? How evil is what they are doing.69 (61-63)


(Translated from Al-Bayān by Dr Shehzad Saleem)







1. This law has always existed in the sharī‘ah of the prophets of God. The Jews are referred to here merely to highlight their callousness and unruliness. This does not mean that this law is specific to the Israelites. Thus the directive which was given to Noah (sws) in this regard is mentioned in the following words in the Bible:

And for your lifeblood I will surely demand an accounting. I will demand an accounting from every animal. And from each human being, too, I will demand an accounting for the life of another human being. Whoever sheds human blood, by humans shall their blood be shed; for in the image of God has God made mankind. (Genesis, 9:5-6)

This law shall be explained later at the end of this section of verses. The real philosophy of qisās has been alluded to here to explain the gravity of killing someone. Consequently, the duties and responsibilities which this type of murder imposes on us as Muslims can be summed up in the following words of Imām Amīn Ahsan Islāhī:

Firstly, every occurrence of murder should create a tumult and commotion in the nation. If qisās is not taken from the criminal responsible for it, everyone will feel that he no longer has the protection of the law he formerly had. The law is the protector of all and if it has been violated, merely a single person has not been slain, but the lives of all  are in danger.

Secondly, to search for the murderer is not just the responsibility of the heirs of the murdered person, but is that of the whole nation as it is not that just one life has been taken – rather all the lives have been taken.

Thirdly, if a person finds someone in danger, he should not ignore the situation thinking that he should not interfere in someone else’s affairs; rather he should defend and protect him as much as he can, even if he has to endure difficulties; for a person who defends an aggrieved and oppressed person, in fact, defends humanity of which he himself is a part.

Fourthly, a person who hides someone’s murder, or bears false evidence in favour of the murderer or stands surety for him, or gives refuge to him or legally pleads for him, or intentionally excuses him, in fact, does so for the murder of his own self, his father, his brother, and his son because the murderer of one is the murderer of all.

Fifthly, to help the government or the heirs of the slain person in taking qisās is like giving a life to the slain person because, according to the Qur’ān, there is life in qisās. (Amīn Ahsan Islāhī, Tadabbur-i Qur’ān, vol. 2, 503)

2. The implication is that they have been transgressing bounds before and are doing so now as well and in spite of the fact that the messengers of God have conclusively communicated the truth to them  are not ready to give up their attitude of rebelliousness and spreading anarchy – an attitude they have always adopted.

3. When a messenger of God is present in this world and in a state ruled by him people challenge the authority of any of his directives or decisions, then this is waging war against Allah and His Prophet (muhārabah). Similarly, spreading anarchy and disorder in the land refers to the situation when an individual or a group of individuals rebels against the law and attacks the life, wealth, honour and freedom of expression of people. Consequently, when murder becomes terrorism, fornication becomes rape and theft assumes the form of robbery or people take to prostitution, become notorious for their ill-ways and vulgarity, become a threat to honourable people because of their immoral and dissolute practices, or rise against the government in rebellion, or create a law and order situation for the government by indulging in hijacking, vandalism and intimidation and by committing other similar crimes, then such people are criminals of spreading anarchy in the society.

The plurals يَسْعَوْنَ (they strive) and يُحَارِبُوْنَ (they wage war) mentioned in the verse point out that if a gang of criminals has committed the crime, the punishment shall not be given to only some of the criminals but to the gang as a whole. Consequently, if a gang of criminals is guilty of spreading disorder in the land and commits such crimes as murder, hijacking, fornication, sabotage and intimidation, there is no need to investigate exactly who among the gang actually committed the crime. Every member of the gang shall be held responsible for it and dealt with accordingly.  

4. The actual words are: اَنْ يُقَتّلوْا (an yuqattalū). They imply that criminals who commit muhārabah against Allah and His messenger and spread anarchy in the land should not only be executed but the execution should be carried out in a manner that serves as a severe warning to others. The reason is that here the word taqtīl has been used instead of qatl. In Arabic, taqtīl means to execute someone in such a way that there is severity in the process of killing him. Consequently, it is a requisite of this directive that such criminals be executed in such a manner that others are able to learn a lesson from this. In the opinion of this writer, the punishment of rajm (stoning to death) is one form of taqtīl. The Prophet (sws) in his own times, in accordance with this directive, administered this punishment to certain criminals guilty of fornication.

5. The actual word is: يُصَلَّبُوا. Like taqtīl, it is also from the تَفْعِيْل (taf‘īl) category. Consequently, it implies that criminals should be crucified in an exemplary manner. The cross on which crucifixion takes place is an erected structure upon which a criminal is nailed through his hands and feet and abandoned till death. This form of punishment, no doubt, is exemplary but the word taslīb demands that other means which make it still more exemplary may also be adopted.

6. It is evident that the form of punishment in which limbs are severed on opposite sides also serves as a severe warning to others. The purpose of this punishment is that if the criminal is allowed to live, then he should serve as a reminder and an example to the society and also remain incapacitated to commit future evil.

7. It is obvious that this punishment of exile is the least in intensity in this category of punishment. The first two types of punishment end a criminal’s life. The third type, though does not end his life, makes him an example in the society; however, this fourth type of punishment without harming his body in anyway, only deprives him of his house and country. The words of the Qur’ān require that in general circumstances this punishment should be carried out in its true form. However, if in some cases, this is not possible, the directive shall stand fulfilled if the criminal is confined in a particular area or kept under house arrest.

Here it should remain in consideration that since each of the punishment types mentioned in the verse is separated from the other by the particle أَوْ (or), it is evident that the Qur’ān has given an Islamic government the flexible authority to administer any of these keeping in view the nature and extent of the crime, the circumstances of the criminal in which he has committed it and the consequences which it produces or can produce in a society. The relatively lighter punishment of nafī is placed with the two very severe types of punishment of taqtīl and taslīb so that if circumstances are such that the criminal deserves any leniency, he should be given it. In the words of Imām Amīn Ahsan Islāhī:

… in such circumstances, the fact that the criminal gang has harmed wealth and property is not the only aspect which should be considered; the objectives of such criminals, the site of their crime, its consequences and circumstances should also be considered. For example, if the circumstances are such that a war is going on or lawlessness is rampant, a stern measure is required. Similarly, if the site of crime is a border area or an abode of enemy intrigue and conspiracy, again an effective action is needed. If the leader of the gang is a very dangerous person, who if shown any leniency, would endanger the life, wealth and honour of many people, then also a severe step is required. In short, the real basis of selection of the type of punishment is not the mere occurrence of such a crime, but the collective influence of the crime and welfare of the society. (Amīn Ahsan Islāhī, Tadabbur-i Qur’ān, vol. 2, 502)


8. The words ذَالِكَ لَهُمْ خِزْىٌ فِى الدُّنيَا (such is their disgrace in this world) used in the verse indicate that while inflicting punishment upon such criminals no feelings of sympathy should arise. The Almighty who created them has ordained complete disgrace and humiliation for them, if they commit such crimes. This is the purpose of this punishment and should always be taken into consideration. In the words of Imām Amīn Ahsan Islāhī:

… their humiliation in this world will be a means of severe warning for others and for those who do not respect the law on the mere ground that laws deserve respect and as such are useful in maintaining order and discipline in the society. In present times, the concepts of sympathy and mercy for crimes and criminals have taken the shape of a whole philosophy. For this reason, today it seems as if man is developing and progressing in various fields of life, yet he is creating for himself a Hell on earth. Islam does not encourage such absurd philosophies. Its law is not based upon fantasies but upon human nature. (Amīn Ahsan Islāhī, Tadabbur-i Qur’ān, vol. 2, 507)

9. In other words, if such criminals come forward and give themselves up to the law before the government lays hands on them, then they shall be dealt with as common criminals. They will not be regarded as criminals of muhārabah or spreading disorder. To quote Imām Amīn Ahsan Islāhī:

… these special powers should only be used against rebellious people who insist on rebellion before the government is able to seize them and the government has to actually subdue them by force. However, criminals who repent and mend their ways before any action by the government shall not be dealt with according to their former status and shall be dealt with according to the ordinary law about such crimes. If they have usurped the rights of common citizens, compensation shall be provided to these citizens.

If the stress of the word فَاعْلَمُوْا (then you should know) is understood, it becomes clear that no measure of retaliation by the government is permitted if the criminals repent and reform themselves before the government captures them. The Almighty is Merciful and Forgiving; if He forgives a person who repents before he is seized by the law, why should His servants adopt a different attitude? (Amīn Ahsan Islāhī, Tadabbur-i Qur’ān, vol. 2, 508)

10. This is because the way to procure God’s nearness is to struggle for His cause. No other means can be instrumental in its procurement. For this, the Qur’ānic words used are: جَاهِدُواْ فِي سَبِيلِهِ. Here the word jihād is used in its broader meaning and refers to the effort and struggle which a person does to obey the directives of God, to adhere to His religion and to obtain His pleasure.

11. The Qur’ānic words used are: فَاقْطَعُواْ أَيْدِيَهُمَا. on account of definite linguistic denotation of the word يَد, hands shall always be cut from below the wrist and because of the affinity between the crime and nature of its punishment the right hand shall be cut as it is this hand which is actually the instrument of doing things. However, it should remain clear that the punishment of amputating the hands is prescribed for a thief, both male (sāriq) and female (sāriqah). Everyone who is aware of the linguistic principles of the Arabic language knows that the words sāriq and sāriqah are adjectives and denote thoroughness and completeness in the characteristics of the word they qualify. Consequently, they can only be used for the type of sarqah which can be called a theft and the one who commits it is called a thief. In other words, if a child steals a few rupees from his father’s pocket, or a wife pinches some money from her husband’s purse, or if a person steals something very ordinary, or plucks some fruit from his neighbour’s orchard, or carries away something valuable which has been left unprotected, or drives away an unattended grazing animal, or commits this ignoble offence owing to some need or compulsion then, no doubt, all these are unworthy acts and should be punished, but certainly cannot be classified as acts of theft which the above given verse qualifies. This shows that the amputation of hands is the utmost punishment and should only be administered when the criminal does not deserve any lenience as far as the nature and circumstances of his crime are concerned.


12. This objective of the punishment. Imām Amīn Ahsan Islāhī explains this in the following way:

… [in this verse], two reasons are stated for the amputation of hands: firstly, it is the punishment for the crime, and secondly, the punishment has to be given in an exemplary way as a means of severe warning to others. The Qur’ān uses the word نَكَال (nakāl) for such a punishment. Since both these reasons are stated adjacently without any conjunction between them, they must be regarded as essential in carrying out the punishment i.e. a means of retribution for the crime and as a means of a severe warning for the society. Those who do not simultaneously take into consideration both these aspects often end up thinking that the punishment is severer than the crime itself. The actual fact is that this punishment is not only the retribution of the criminal act, but it is also a means to putting an end to many such crimes which may be triggered as a result if the criminals are not totally discouraged by treating them harshly. Like the craving for sex, the lust for wealth is also intense in a person. If this lust is allowed to thrive and prosper, the consequences which arise may well be observed in our own society by any keen eye. If a list of crimes ensuing from theft committed in the most civilized of countries in only one year is prepared, it will be enough to open the eyes. The faint hearts of these civilized societies are deeply moved if hands are amputated because of theft, yet the horrendous crimes which result directly or indirectly through theft fail to rouse any feelings of concern in them. Theft is not a simple crime: it is a source of many crimes. If this crime is eliminated, the other crimes shall automatically be taken care of. Consequently, experience has shown that the amputation of hands on account of theft has not only reduced instances of this crime, but has gone a long way in reducing other crimes as well. If by amputating a few hands, the life, wealth and honour of thousands of people are safeguarded, then this is not a bad deal at all; in fact, it is a very lucrative one. Regrettably some unethical elements among the intelligentsia of this modern age fail to appreciate this. (Amīn Ahsan Islāhī, Tadabbur-i Qur’ān, vol. 2, 512)

13. The implication is that He is dominant; therefore, he has the right to give directives to whomever He intends and is He is wise; therefore, none of His actions is devoid of wisdom and expediency.

14. It is evident from this that mending of ways is an essential condition for repentance. Similarly, it is evident also that as far as the Hereafter is concerned, a person can only attain salvation if he repents and mends his ways. Neither is worldly punishment a substitute of repentance and neither is repentance the substitute of worldly punishment. Consequently, this punishment shall be administered even if a person repents and mends his ways, and in spite of receiving this punishment in this world, he shall only be forgiven in the Hereafter if he repents and mends his ways.

15. The address is general here. Imām Amīn Ahsan Islāhī writes:

… this is a warning in the form of a general address: all the authority in the heavens and the earth belongs to God; it is He who will punish anyone He wants to and forgive anyone He wants to. No one else has any say or authority to intervene in any way in this matter. Hence, it is the obligation of everyone to make himself subservient to the law of God and submit himself to it. Neither should anyone run away from it nor think of measures which may save others from it. Similarly, no one should become indifferent to God and His sharī‘ah or rely on influence and intercession. This warning was necessary because in fact all the directives of murder, qisās, robbery and theft etc mentioned in this sūrah were ones in which previous people had slipped and gone astray. They invented many subterfuges to evade these directives, so much so that all these directives became totally ineffective. If an investigation is done to find the reason for this, it will become clearly evident that these people did not fully keep in mind the essence of tawhīd which has been reminded of in the verse under discussion. (Amīn Ahsan Islāhī, Tadabbur-i Qur’ān, vol. 2, 514)

16. The actual words are:يَا أَيُّهَا الرَّسُولُ لاَ يَحْزُنكَ الَّذِينَ يُسَارِعُونَ فِي الْكُفْرِ. Here the address made by the word رَسُولُ is meant to express the fact that Muhammad (sws) has not been entrusted with any responsibility beyond preaching and delivering glad tidings and warnings. If he discharges this responsibility of prophethood, then he is done what he was entrusted with in this regard. If people do not profess faith, then they will be held liable and the Prophet (sws) should not grieve on this. Imām Amīn Ahsan Islāhī writes:

… here since the objective is to assure Muhammad (sws) on the hostile and conniving attitude adopted by the Jews and to explain the fact that those who are bound to end up indulging in mischief as per an established practice of God will definitely end doing so. For this reason, Muhammad (sws) was addressed by the words:يَا أَيُّهَا الرَّسُولُ  so that the words of this address could make his responsibilities clear to him. Further ahead the, essence of these words is explained by the words:مَن يُرِدِ اللّهُ فِتْنَتَهُ فَلَن تَمْلِكَ لَهُ مِنَ اللّهِ شَيْئًا. (Amīn Ahsan Islāhī, Tadabbur-i Qur’ān, vol. 2, 521)

17. This is a reference to the leaders and scholars of the Jews who would concoct lies about the Prophet (sws) day and night and instead of coming out openly against him would incite their followers to show hostility towards him.

18. The Qur’ānic words used are: يُحَرِّفُونَ الْكَلِمَ مِن بَعْدِ مَوَاضِعِهِ. One governing noun (mudāf) is suppressed in them as per linguistic principles of Arabic. ie مِن بَعْدِ وَضْع مَوَاضِعِهِ. The implication is that in spite of the fact that the context and occasion of what is said is evident, they alter this context and occasion and in this way commit blatant interpolation. It is not the fact that the context and occasion are not evident and they make a mistake in its application in innocence. 

19. The implication is that they do not want a just verdict in the light of the sharī‘ah of God; on the contrary, they want a verdict that pleases them. Thus they tell one another that if the verdict suits them, only then should thay accept it; otherwise they should evade it.

20. This is a mention of the established practice of God about giving guidance or depriving someone of it. Imām Amīn Ahsan Islāhī has explained it. He write:

… an established practice of  God is that people who deliberately and intentionally give priority to evil over good and do not learn a lesson from the warnings of God or of the righteous gradually dampen their conscience and intellect so much that they are deprived of the will and courage to accept the truth and become drenched in evil. However much a person may shake and jolt them, they remain in their slumber. It is these people whom God lets stay face down in this trial which they have plunged into. (Amīn Ahsan Islāhī, Tadabbur-i Qur’ān, vol. 2, 523)

21. God does not want to purify their hearts because there is a specific principle which God follows in this regard according to which they are no longer worthy that their hearts be purified by God. Imām Amīn Ahsan Islāhī writes:

… if those who tread the path of virtue stumble on the way and fall down but get up after this fall and through repentance and reformation cleanse themselves and resume their journey, even if they fall and get up a hundred times their clothes do not get dirty. God washes this dirt in lieu of their repentance and reformation. On the other hand, those who continuously indulge in vice and show disobedience and remain besmeared with the filth of their sins, enjoy them and find comfort in them, fill their hearts with this filth and nothing is able to cleanse them. Then God leaves them for the burning furnace of Hell. (Amīn Ahsan Islāhī, Tadabbur-i Qur’ān, vol. 2, 524)

22. i.e. they are very fond of lies. Thus they are always ready to bear false witness in any religious matter or in any lawsuit and for this even take bribes.

23. The implication is that all their conspiracies will be unveiled. God has decided to expose them. Thus even if the Prophet (sws) defers the cases they bring to him, they will not be able to harm him in any way by creating a propaganda against him and his preaching enterprise.

It is evident from this that  that if the People of the Book living under an Islamic government want to decide their affairs according to their sharī‘ah and from the courts of their own scholars and jurists, there is no hindrance in this. It is also apparent from verses further ahead that this is pleasing to God. The reason is that till the time they profess faith in the Qur’ān, it is only befitting for them that they turn to the Torah and the Gospel. These are the books of God and no Muslim can be audacious enough to stop them from following the Books of God.

24. This is an expression of amazement that while they do believe in the Torah, they do not believe in Muhammad (sws); but when a certain verdict of the Torah is not acceptable to them they bring over their cases to him so that if they are able to get a verdict that pleases them they are able to say that by leaving the Torah they have not done any crime; they have accepted the verdict of God’s messenger.

It is evident from this if the law of God has been given in the capacity of a law, then following it is required in itself. No one can make a new law in its place even while keeping its objectives in view. It is evident from the verse that even after almost two thousand years of the Torah’s revelation, it is mandatory upon its followers to follow its directives. After this how can it be allowed for a Muslim to put aside the law of God and make a new law for himself by keeping the objectives of the law of God before him? It is evident from the context of the verse that it was to escape the directives of hudūd that the Jews tried to find various subterfuges. The Almighty has made it evident that it is only the zālim (the oppressive), the fāsiq (the defiant) and the kāfir (the disbelievers) who try to find ways to escape His directives.

25. Since they, from the very beginning, never desired that a verdict of justice be obtained by them, at first they did turn to the Prophet (sws) but if his verdict was not according to their desires, they defied it as well.

26. This refers to guidance to the straight path and a light that will take them out from the darkness of their desires, their religious innovations and their ignorance.

27. This is a sarcastic remark on the religious scholars of the Jews. That is those prophets who like these scholars of the Jews did not regard the Torah to be a book which was mandatory to be followed by others; in fact, they themselves were obedient to God and submitted to His laws and directives.

28. This is a mirror placed by the Qur’ān before its addressees. In the words of Imām Amīn Ahsan Islāhī, the implication of these words is to make them realize their folly: in spite of being the custodians of the Book of God, they breached this sacred trust of God and in spite of being witnesses to the sharī‘ah of God they so very adeptly concealed this sharī‘ah. He writes:

… this mirror has been placed before the Jews of those times so that in its reflection they should see what responsibilities had been imposed on them viz a viz the Torah, how their righteous ancestors fulfilled them and how now they have made this covenant mere child’s play. (Amīn Ahsan Islāhī, Tadabbur-i Qur’ān, vol. 2, 527)

29. What is implied is that they who were made witnesses were also directed to fear God alone while discharging their responsibilities as witnesses and to disregard the fear and awe of others and not breach this trust of God for their personal interests. This directive is mentioned very emphatically at all those places in the Torah where the Jews have been called to obey the covenant to follow the directives of the sharī‘ah. The discourse here shifts from indirect to direct so that the diversity in address makes it more effective for the listeners.

30. The same will apply for Muslims who in spite of having freedom and authority do not decide their affairs according to the Book of God.

31. This is a reference to the law to evade which the Jews wanted to have recourse to the Prophet (sws). The Qur’ān has specified that this is the sharī ‘ah of God and His eternal directive. It was written in the Torah in the same words. If they will try to escape from it, then they will be regarded as wrongdoers (zālim) and defiant (fāsiq) in the sight of God.

32. This is an exhortation to the wounded or the heirs of the slain person: if they forgive the slayer, this act of virtue will become an atonement for their sins. The extent of this forgiveness will govern the extent of sins forgiven. The style of the verse shows that its directive is also applicable to us. Verse 178 of Sūrah Baqarah corroborates this.

33. This is because he who evades the directive of God takes apart the greatest right of God on him. The Almighty has specified that jinnkid and mankind must submit to Him and remain His obedient servants. This servitude is a right of God and an essential requirement of obedience to Him. If anyone who believes in God evades this, then he is indeed a wrongdoer (zālim).

34. That is exactly for the same objectives as the earlier messengers. Imām Amīn Ahsan Islāhī writes:

… the words express the unanimity and similarity of the dawah of the prophets, their objective, their temperament, character and methodology. This element, among others, is a sign of prophethood. Just as the branches and fruits of the same pure tree are similar to one another, there exists similarly in this holy group so that if a person recognizes one of them, it is as if he has recognized all of them. Only those who are either blind or become blind have confusion in recognizing them. Those endowed with vision are never deceived in this regard. (Amīn Ahsan Islāhī, Tadabbur-i Qur’ān, vol. 2, 531)

35. The actual words are: مِنَ التَّوْرَاةِ مُصَدِّقًا لِّمَا بَيْنَ يَدَيْهِ. Before them, the sentence فِيهِ هُدًى وَنُورٌ occurs as a hāl (an accusative of state). It is co-ordinated to it. The words هُدًى وَمَوْعِظَةً لِّلْمُتَّقِينَ after it are of the same category. The implication is that in the Torah and the Gospel there is no difference about Moses (sws) and Jesus (sws) viz a viz their source and origin and the guidance and knowledge enshrined in them, and that Jesus (sws) did not come with a new sharī‘ah. In fact, he corroborated the sharī‘ah found in the Torah.

36. This refers to the Torah. The Gospel is not mentioned because before the Qur’ān it was the Torah which had the status of the real divine Book. The Psalms, the Gospel and other scriptures of the prophets of God are actually corollaries of the Torah.

37. The actual word is: مُهَيْمِن. It is an adjective formed from the words هَيْمَنَ فُلاَنٌ عَلَى كَذَا which means “a guardian” and “a protector”. The implication is that the Qur’ān is the real authentic and trustworthy version of the Book of God. Thus if the veracity of something mentioned in the Torah or other scriptures is to be judged, it can only be done by regarding the Qur’ān as the standard and the real reference point. Whatever it judges to be right is right and whatever it judges to be wrong is wrong and must necessarily be rejected.

38. The actual words are:  لاَ تَتَّبِعْ أَهْوَاءهُمْ عَمَّا جَاءكَ مِنَ الْحَقِّ. In them, the presence of عَنْ after لاَ تَتَّبِعْ shows that the latter encompasses the meaning of لاَ تَنْحَرِفْ (do not deviate). What is meant in this verse is that when these people come to the Prophet (sws) to decide their cases, then he should judge between them according to what God has revealed to him. He is bound to follow it. He cannot deviate from it and judge between them while following their desires and religious innovations. If they go to their jurists, then as it is obligatory on them to judge on the basis of the Torah and the Gospel, similarly, when they come to him,  he must judge between them on the basis of the Qur’ān. Judging matters on the basis of other laws leaving aside the Qur’ān is the same kufr (disbelief), zulm (oppression) and fisq (sws) as was mentioned earlier with relation to the Torah and the Gospel.

39. The Qur’ānic words used are  شِرْعَة ًand مِنْهَاجًا. The second of these explicates the former. The implication is that the sharī‘ah given by God is a line of action and a way of life through which the facts of religion relate to circumstances of life.

40. Why did the Almighty give separate sharī‘ahs to different prophets? The answer is expressed here. Imām Amīn Ahsan Islāhī writes:

As far as the real aspects of religion are concerned, they have always remained unchanged and shall remain so; however, as far as the rituals and customs of the sharī‘ah are concerned, the Almighty has prescribed them separately for each ummah so that this can become a means of trial for them. This trial will enable the Almighty to see who turns away from the truth by showing bias and prejudice to these rituals and customs and who becomes the real seeker of the truth and accepts them in every form that they come to them from God and His prophet. (Amīn Ahsan Islāhī, Tadabbur-i Qur’ān, vol. 2, 535)

41. The implication is that Muslims should not become slaves to rituals and customs and become single-track minded in this regard. They should on the contrary keep the real essence of religion before them and should try to outdo one another in acquiring virtue, piety and God’s nearness – a path which God has opened for them. It is befitting for them to totally submit to the law of God in whatever form it comes  and should not make differences in various sharī‘ahs a basis to swerve away from the essence of religion which is servitude to God.

42. This sentence is co-ordinated to another sentence which germinates from the expression: فَاسْتَبِقُوا الخَيْرَاتِ. The details of this germinated sentence are referred to in the previous footnote. Here, a warning is sounded once again while referring to the words: وَاحْذَرْهُمْ أَن يَفْتِنُوكَ عَن بَعْضِ مَا أَنزَلَ اللّهُ إِلَيْكَ. Imām Amīn Ahsan Islāhī writes:

…  further warning was required because this phase was not an easy one. The opposing forces were not going to easily accept defeat. The word fitnah alludes to the fact that they will try their best to pull the Prophet (sws) and the Muslims away from the covenant of God. In order to protect them from this danger, it is stated here that however much force and pressure they may exert, the Prophet (sws) and the Muslims must follow the sharī‘ah revealed by the Almighty come what may. They must not follow the desires and religious innovations of the opposing forces leaving aside this sharī‘ah. (Amīn Ahsan Islāhī, Tadabbur-i Qur’ān, vol. 2, 536)

43. The implication is that if they show aversion even after the truth is conclusively communicated to them, then this means that they have become bereft of the urge to acquire divine guidance. Hence they will now face the permanent practice of God which He has prescribed for the progeny of Abraham (sws) viz. He punishes them for their sins in this very world.

44. The Qur’ānic words used are: أَفَحُكْمَ الْجَاهِلِيَّةِ يَبْغُونَ. They occur in contrast to مَآ أَنزَلَ اللّهُ. It is evident from this contrast that every law which is adopted leaving aside the law revealed by God is the law of jāhiliyyah whether made in ancient times or in modern times, and only those adopt it who neither have conviction in God nor in the Hereafter.

45. Though the address is general, it is evident from succeeding verses that it is directed to the Hypocrites who were under the influence of the Jews and who have been under mention since verse forty one above by the words الَّذِينَ يُسَارِعُونَ فِي الْكُفْرِ. They have been stopped from this friendship because after conclusive communication of the truth from the Prophet (sws) God was about to pass His judgement regarding these Jews and Christians. It was essential that before this judgement was passed the Hypocrites and the true believers be made distinct from one another. This verse has no bearing on the Jews and Christians of these times.

46. i.e. they regard Islam and the Muslims to be a common threat to themselves and had formed a united front to deal with them. Thus, the Qur’ān directed the Muslims too to become a united front by severing all ties of friendship and trust with these Jews and Christians.

47. The implication is that those who wrong their souls by befriending such enemies of faith and religion will never reach the destination which the Almighty has prescribed for the believers. He never shows the way to such wrongdoers.

48. The actual words are: يَقُولُونَ نَخْشَى أَن تُصِيبَنَا دَآئِرَةٌ. Just as the word قَالَ is used to say something with the tongue, it is also used to say something in the heart. Contextual indications show that here it is used in this second meaning. Thus the Qur’ān has pointed to this by the succeeding words: فَيُصْبِحُواْ عَلَى مَا أَسَرُّواْ فِي أَنْفُسِهِمْ نَادِمِينَ. Imām Amīn Ahsan Islāhī writes:

… the implied meaning is that at the moment these hypocrites are apprehensive of the fate of the conflict between the Muslims and their enemies; they anxiously say in their hearts that if victory finally goes to their enemies and they side with the Muslims, then they will be caught up in a severe calamity; it is better, they contend, to try to maintain good relations with both these factions. (Amīn Ahsan Islāhī, Tadabbur-i Qur’ān, vol. 2, 544)

49. The actual word is: عَسَى. Besides its conventional meaning, it also subtly expresses a promise. Here, a little deliberation will show that it is used in this latter meaning.

50. This is refers to a decisive victory between the forces of good and evil.

51. That is to reveal something through which all the secrets of these hypocrites are revealed and they are not left with anything to say.

52. This is a portrayal of the fate they will meet. After God deprives them of faith and sincerity, none of their deeds will bear any fruit and they will ultimately end up with failure and humiliation.

53. It is automatically evident from this that neither do these Hypocrites love God nor does God love them. Instead of befriending God, His Messenger and the believers, they have decided to befriend the enemies of Islam and faith. Thus God is indifferent to them and disgusted with them.

54. The implication is that they will be soft, humble and submissive to the Muslims and a solid rock against the rejecters. They will never be able to be used by these hypocrites for their objectives. They, like the hypocrites, will also not be always prepared to deceive the Muslims or become puppets in the hands of the rejecters so that the enemies of God and His Prophet (sws) can mould them in any way they want. Imām Amīn Ahsan Islāhī has explained this. He writes:

The word أَذِلَّةٌ is the plural of ذَلِيْلٌ. In Arabic, this world connotes both a positive and a negative meaning. When it connotes its positive meaning, as is the case here, it means soft-spoken, gentle, obedient, humble and docile. The word ذَلُوْلٌ also occurs in this meaning. An obedient camel is called ناقة ذلول.

The word أَعِرَّةٌ is the plural of عَزِيْزٌ. It is used in contrast with أَذِلَّةٌ. It means something hard, difficult, burdensome, difficult to surmount and non-docile. If it is said: هُوَ عَزِيْزٌ علَيَّ it would mean: “that thing is very burdensome for me; to control it is very difficult for me.” The expression  شديد عليalso has the same meaning. (Amīn Ahsan Islāhī, Tadabbur-i Qur’ān, vol. 2, 546)

55. The implication is that they will not merely vociferously proclaim themselves to be the travelers of the path of passion; they will form the vanguard of every movement launched for the establishment and propagation of religion. They will participate in this struggle disregarding any advice and rebuke. They will not give any importance to the interests, desires and lures which have enslaved these Hypocrites. Imām Amīn Ahsan Islāhī writes:

… the first condition to embark on this task is that a person should turn away from all his other vested interests and pursuits and should shut off his ears to all suggestions and reproaches of others. He who looks back after every step he takes and also gives importance to the suggestions of his advisers and the rebukes of his reproachers, will in fact be taking a step backwards whenever he takes a step forward. Whenever classical Arabic poets compose lines on the topic of valour, courage and generosity, then in the prelude they mention the reproaches of reproachers because this is the oldest and the most definitely-encountered calamity in this cause. It is not possible that a person take up a task that requires will and perseverance and not encounter reproachers and advisers around him. This is the first trial faced in this cause. If a person does not have the courage to move ahead by disregarding it, he often ends up a loser right in the beginning. (Amīn Ahsan Islāhī, Tadabbur-i Qur’ān, vol. 2, 547)

56. The whole of this verse sounds assurance to the Prophet (sws) and his sincere associates so that they are not grief-stricken by the proclivity of these hypocrites towards the disbelievers. If they recant religion, they will not be able to harm it in any way. God out of His grace will cause people who will not have these weaknesses to embrace faith.

57. It is evident from this that the salāh and the zakāh are practical manifestations of faith. Instead of co-ordinating the expression يُقِيمُونَ الصَّلاَةَ وَيُؤْتُونَ الزَّكَاةَ to الَّذِينَ آمَنُواْ, the style of badal (permutative) was adopted to point to this fact. The words humility and submission which occur here are meant to point to the real essence of the salāh and the zakāh. What is implied is that just as without the salāh and the zakāh, faith is devoid of its essence, similarly, without humility and submission the salāh and the zakāh become mere rituals.

58. Earlier it was said the deeds of those who befriend the Jews and the Christians will come to nothing and they will end up losers. Here, in contrast to this, it is said that the companions of the Messenger shall definitely become dominant and his enemies will necessarily be vanquished in this land.

59. Stated here is the reason why the Messenger and his companions will be dominant: this is because they are the faction of God (حِزْبُ اللّهِ) which is working directly under His guidance and God’s faction can never be vanquished. This, in fact, is a mention of the established practice of God about His messengers which is stated at several instances in the Qur’ān: God necessarily makes them triumph. It is evident from this that the faction of the messengers is in fact حِزْبُ اللّه. After them, it is not appropriate to use this name for any other faction.

60. These words invoke the honour of the Muslims: how can they befriend people who make fun of their religion and make their religious symbols a matter of amusement? It is the nature of a human being that he never tolerates disrespect of anything that belongs to him. Woe be unto such Muslims who tolerate it; and in fact seek friendship with those who show such disrespect.

61. This is a mention of the thing which they would make fun of: the call to prayer (ādhān) which the Prophet (sws) had instituted as a sunnah for summoning people to the prayer. The miscreants among the Jews would mockingly mimic it; laugh at it and induce others to laugh at it.

62. This is because no sane person can like that if some group calls him to worship God and he make fun if it or make an invitation to virtue and piety a means of laughter and amusement.

63. The implication is that they are venting anger because most of them are disobedient and do not want anyone to adopt the attitude of obedience and thus earn the pleasure of God.

64. Here the Qur’ān very subtly refers to the crimes of those who were making fun and presents these to them: they are contemplating a bad fate for Muslims but ignore their own misdeeds; they should know that the worst fate with God is of those who commit such crimes and not those who profess faith in all the messengers of God and all His Books and try to spend their lives according to their requisites.

65. This is a reference to a settlement of the Jews where people tried to deceive God in the matter of the Sabbath. As a result, first their characters were distorted and then their appearance too became close to that of animals. The state was reached when their inner and outer selves was totally cursed by God.

66. This second fact is the reason for the one stated first: they have strayed far from the right path and hence in the Hereafter worse will be their fate.

67. This mention also relates to the Jews; they were people who acknowledged the prophethood of Muhammad (sws) but in their hearts would say that if they were accepting him as a prophet they were only doing so for the Ishmaelites; as far as they themselves were concerned, their own prophet and scriptures were sufficient for them; they were not bound to follow any guidance outside this sphere. The Qur’ān has clearly branded this attitude as disbelief and that such faith is not acceptable in any way.

68. Here the Qur’ān has exposed their claim to faith. Imām Amīn Ahsan Islāhī writes:

… it is evident from this that it is not unlikely that oppression or excesses emanate from a believer or that he is afflicted with something prohibited by religion; however, if corruption, oppression and committing excesses become a part and parcel of his life, then something very evil is being done with this claim to faith. At another place, this aspect is alluded to by saying that if their faith is directing them to do these things, then it is directing them to do very evil things. (Amīn Ahsan Islāhī, Tadabbur-i Qur’ān, vol. 2, 553)

69.  The implication is that quite apart from their masses, even their rabbis and scholars were so bereft of faith and morality that they did not stop people for their sins. What else was the reason for this than that they themselves were committing sins.

For Questions on Islam, please use our

Replica Handbags Bottega Veneta fake Bvlgari fake Celine fake Christian Dior fake Gucci fake Gucci Bag fake Gucci Wallet fake Gucci Shoes fake Gucci Belt fake Hermes fake Loewe fake Louis Vuitton fake Louis Vuitton Belt fake Louis Vuitton Calf Leather fake Louis Vuitton Damier Azur Canvas fake Louis Vuitton Damier Ebene Canvas fake Louis Vuitton Damier Graphite Canvas fake Louis Vuitton Damier Infini Leather fake Louis Vuitton Damier Quilt lamb fake Louis Vuitton Embossed Calfskin fake Louis Vuitton Epi fake Louis Vuitton Game On Monogram Canvas fake Louis Vuitton Jewellery fake Louis Vuitton Key Holder fake Louis Vuitton Mahina Leather fake Louis Vuitton Monogram Canvas fake Louis Vuitton Monogram Denim fake Louis Vuitton Monogram Eclipse Canvas fake Louis Vuitton Monogram Empreinte fake Louis Vuitton Monogram Seal fake Louis Vuitton Monogram Shadow fake Louis Vuitton Monogram Vernis fake Louis Vuitton Monogram Watercolor fake Louis Vuitton New Wave fake Louis Vuitton Shoes fake Louis Vuitton Since 1854 fake Louis Vuitton Strap fake Louis Vuitton Taiga Leahter fake Louis Vuitton Taurillon leather fake Louis Vuitton Transformed Game On canvas fake Louis Vuitton Utah Calfskin fake Louis Vuitton X Supreme fake Mulberry fake Prada fake YSL fake