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Dr. Shehzad Saleem

After achieving independence, it is now our duty, as a nation, to implement the teachings of Islam in our country. Our state affairs should be run in accordance with the dictates of the Sharī’ah. Every law enacted, every ruling made and every judgement passed must conform with the purports of the Book of Allah and the Sunnah of the Prophet (sws). All man-made principles whether they relate to politics or economics, sociology or culture, law or education must be subservient to Divine Laws. An Islamic revolution is actually the attainment of these objectives. Such a revolution should take place not only in this country but in other Muslim countries as well, so that the whole Muslim Ummah is able to bear witness to the religion of truth upon the whole world---an obligation which the Qur’ān imposes on it.

It should be borne in mind that the obligation of bringing all the state affairs in the servility of Islam is imposed upon us in the capacity of a nation. Therefore, if the nation becomes indifferent to this obligation, then, according to the Qur’ān those who possess tafaqquh-fid-deen1 are obligated to caution and warn the nation of its negligence that such an attitude would not only disgrace and humiliate it in this world but also hold each of its individuals accountable according to his status and responsibility in the Day of Judgement. The Qur’ān uses the term ‘Indhār’ for this:

“It was not possible for all the believers to undertake [this job]. So why did not a few from every group among them come forward to gain sound knowledge in religion and warn the people of their [respective] nations, when they returned to them that they may also take heed.” (9:122)

According to the above verse, only people who possess tafaqquh-fid-deen should embark upon this task. This condition is but a natural one and obviously people who are not well-versed with what they actually intend to preach are not appropriate at all for its propagation. Only people who have direct access to the sources of Islam and have the ability to deduce and form independent opinions about matters which are not covered by these sources and have been left to be tackled by human intellect can be deemed fit for such an undertaking. This verse also defines the circle within which they should limit themselves in discharging this duty ie their own nation. Every person carrying out this obligation must necessarily do so in his own nation and in no way is he permitted to exceed this limit.

As obvious corollories, there are two basic requirements of this obligation of Indhār. Firstly, those who undertake this job must explain and elucidate the precepts of the Shariah at the highest intellectual level so that no one should dare to point a finger or object at any belief or directive of Islam. The whole rationale behind them should be so thoroughly explained and elaborated upon that all doubts which have been generated in the minds of the people in this regard are cleared and all questions are given satisfactory answers. Secondly, they should arrange to educate, mold and discipline the general masses as far as possible to purify their souls.

It can be safely said that carrying out the responsibility of Indhār is the only obligation of those who possess tafaqquh. Any thing over and above this is not obligatory. They should discharge this duty with all the sympathy and compassion they can muster until the nation pays heed to its obligations or until death relieves them of this responsibility. Moreover, if those enlightened with tafaqquh-fid-deen carry out this obligation, then Islam demands from the general masses to assist and support those among them whose piety and prudence they trust and have faith in. This is their only responsibility in this regard in accordance with the Qur’ānic verse: ‘O ye who believe! Be ye helpers of Allah”, (61:14). As far as forming a party to bring about an Islamic revolution is concerned, if the undertaking does not exceed the limits set forth by Islam, then such an endeavour is certainly not forbidden and in fact deserves to be lauded. People who co-operate with such endeavours should also hope to profit by this virtuous deed in the Hereafter. However, we are afraid that, if such endeavours are regarded among the basic obligations, the Qur’ān and Sunnah do not endorse this view at all.

Since the obligations imposed on the common man, those in authority and the whole Muslim Ummah are different according to their respective responsibilities and capabilities, the content of this Indhār shall vary according to these addressees.

The common masses shall be cautioned that unless they fulfill the three conditions mentioned in Sūrah Asr2, viz profess faith, do virtuous deeds and exhort each other to the right path and to remain steadfast on it, their salvation in the Hereafter is uncertain.

Those in authority shall be cautioned that they must establish regular prayers and pay zakat and enjoin what is virtuous and forbid what is evil, as mentioned in Sūrah Haj3. They shall also be warned of the dire consequences if they show negligence in this regard4.

The whole Ummah shall be cautioned to fulfil its obligation of bearing witness to the religion of truth upon the whole world by practically exhibiting the goals and ideals of Islam, as pointed out by the Qur’ān5.






1. A sound knowledge and understanding of Islam.

2. “Time [through the ages] bears witness that man is in a state of loss, save those who believe, do virtuous deeds and exhort each other to the right path and to remain steadfast on it.” (103:1-3)

3. “[These believers are those who], if We grant them authority in [this] land, they will establish regular prayers and pay zakat and enjoin what is virtuous and forbid what is evil.” (22:41)

4. “And those who do not decide according to the law revealed by Allah are kaafirs.” (5:44)

5. “And similarly [like the Jews before] we made you a just nation that you may bear witness [to the religion of truth] upon men and that the Prophet should be a witness upon you.” (2:143)

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